# Glossary

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###### ATAR

view_agenda book_2Australian Tertiary Admission Rank

###### Accomplished

view_agenda book_2Highly trained or skilled in a particular activity; perfected in knowledge or training; expert

###### Accuracy

view_agenda book_2The condition or quality of being true, correct or exact; freedom from error or defect; precision or exactness; correctness; in science, the extent to which a measurement result represents the quantity it purports to measure; an accurate measurement result includes an estimate of the true value and an estimate of the uncertainty

###### Accurate

view_agenda book_2Precise and exact; to the point; consistent with or exactly conforming to a truth, standard, rule, model, convention or known facts; free from error or defect; meticulous; correct in all details

###### Adept

view_agenda book_2Very/highly skilled or proficient at something; expert

###### Adequate

view_agenda book_2Satisfactory or acceptable in quality or quantity equal to the requirement or occasion

###### Algorithm

view_agenda book_2A precisely defined procedure that can be applied and systematically followed through to a conclusion

###### Analyse

view_agenda book_2Dissect to ascertain and examine constituent parts and/or their relationships; break down or examine in order to identify the essential elements, features, components or structure; determine the logic and reasonableness of information

###### Anti-differentiation

view_agenda book_2The process of solving for anti-derivatives; an anti-derivative, primitive, or indefinite integral of a function \( f(x) \) is a function \( F(x) \) whose derivative is \( f(x) \), i.e. \( F'(x) = f(x) \). Anti-derivatives are not unique; if \( F(x) \) is an anti-derivative of \( f(x) \), then so too is the function \( F(x) + c \) where \( c \) is any number; \( \int f(x) dx = F(x) + c \) denotes the set of all anti-derivatives of \( f(x) \); the number \( c \) is called the constant of integration, e.g. since \( \frac{d}{dx} (x^3) = 3x^2 \), we can write \( \int 3x^2 \, dx = x^3 + c \)

###### Applied Learning

view_agenda book_2The acquisition and application of knowledge, understanding and skills in real-world or lifelike contexts that may encompass workplace, industry and community situations; it emphasises learning through doing and includes both theory and the application of theory, connecting subject knowledge and understanding with the development of practical skills

###### Applied subject

view_agenda book_2A subject whose primary pathway is work and vocational education; it emphasises applied learning and community connections; a subject for which a syllabus has been developed by the QCAA with the following characteristics: results from courses developed from Applied syllabuses contribute to the QCE; results may contribute to ATAR calculations

###### Apply

view_agenda book_2Use knowledge and understanding in response to a given situation or circumstance; carry out or use a procedure in a given or particular situation

###### Appraise

view_agenda book_2Evaluate the worth, significance or status of something; judge or consider a text or piece of work

###### Appreciate

view_agenda book_2Recognise or make a judgment about the value or worth of something; understand fully; grasp the full implications of

###### Appropriate

view_agenda book_2Acceptable; suitable or fitting for a particular purpose, circumstance, context, etc.

###### Apt

view_agenda book_2Suitable to the purpose or occasion; fitting, appropriate

###### Area of study

view_agenda book_2A division of, or a section within a unit

###### Argue

view_agenda book_2Give reasons for or against something; challenge or debate an issue or idea; persuade, prove or try to prove by giving reasons

###### Arithmetic sequence

view_agenda book_2A sequence of numbers such that the difference of any two successive numbers in the sequence is a constant, e.g. the sequence 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, ... is an arithmetic sequence with common difference 3, if the initial term of an arithmetic sequence is \(t_1\) and the common difference of successive members is \(d\), then the \(n\)th term, \(t_n\), of the sequence is given by: \( t_n = t_1 + (n - 1)d \) for \( n \geq 1 \) a recursive definition is \( t_{n+1} = t_n + d\), where \(d\) is the common difference and \(n \geq 1 \)

###### Aspect

view_agenda book_2A particular part of a feature of something; a facet, phase or part of a whole

###### Assess

view_agenda book_2Measure, determine, evaluate, estimate or make a judgment about the value, quality, outcomes, results, size, significance, nature or extent of something

###### Assessment

view_agenda book_2Purposeful and systematic collection of information about students' achievements

###### Assessment instrument

view_agenda book_2A tool or device used to gather information about student achievement

###### Assessment objectives

view_agenda book_2Drawn from the unit objectives and contextualised for the requirements of the assessment instrument (see also 'syllabus objectives', 'unit objectives')

###### Assessment technique

view_agenda book_2The method used to gather evidence about student achievement, (e.g. examination, project, investigation)

###### Assumptions

view_agenda book_2Conditions that are stated to be true when beginning to solve a problem

###### Astute

view_agenda book_2Showing an ability to accurately assess situations or people; of keen discernment

###### Asymptote

view_agenda book_2A line is an asymptote to a curve if the distance between the line and the curve approaches zero as they tend to infinity. For example, the line with equation \( x = \frac{\pi}{2} \) is a vertical asymptote to the graph of \( y = \tan x \), and the line with equation \( y = 0 \) is a horizontal asymptote to the graph of \( y = \frac{1}{x} \)

###### Authoritative

view_agenda book_2Able to be trusted as being accurate or true; reliable; commanding and self-confident; likely to be respected and obeyed

###### Balanced

view_agenda book_2Keeping or showing a balance; not biased; fairly judged or presented; taking everything into account in a fair, well-judged way

###### Basic

view_agenda book_2Fundamental

###### Bernoulli random variable

view_agenda book_2A variable with two possible values, 0 and 1; the parameter associated with such a random variable is the probability \( p \) of obtaining a 1

###### Bernoulli trial

view_agenda book_2A chance experiment with possible outcomes, typically labelled success and failure

###### Binomial distribution

view_agenda book_2A distribution giving the probability of obtaining a specified number of successes in a set of trials where each trial can end in either a success or a failure

###### Binomial theorem

view_agenda book_2The expansion \( (x + y)^n = x^n + \left( \begin{array}{c} n \\ 1 \end{array} \right)x^{n-1}y + ... + \left( \begin{array}{c} n \\ r \end{array} \right)x^{n-r}y^r + ... + y^n \)

###### Calculate

view_agenda book_2Determine or find (e.g. a number, answer) by using mathematical processes; obtain a numerical answer showing the relevant stages in the working; ascertain/determine from given facts, figures or information

###### Categorise

view_agenda book_2Place in or assign to a particular class or group; arrange or order by classes or categories; classify, sort out, sort, separate

###### Chain rule

view_agenda book_2Relates the derivative of the composite of two functions to the functions and their derivatives; if \( h(x) = f(g(x)) \), then \( h'(x) = f'(g(x)) g'(x) \), and in Leibniz notation: \( \frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{dy}{du} \times \frac{du}{dx} \)

###### Challenging

view_agenda book_2Difficult but interesting; testing one's abilities; demanding and thought-provoking; usually involving unfamiliar or less familiar elements

###### Characteristic

view_agenda book_2A typical feature or quality

###### Clarify

view_agenda book_2Make clear or intelligible; explain; make a statement or situation less confused and more comprehensible

###### Clarity

view_agenda book_2Cleanness of thought or expression; the quality of being coherent and intelligible; free from obscurity of sense; without ambiguity; explicit; easy to perceive, understand or interpret

###### Classify

view_agenda book_2Arrange, distribute or order in classes or categories according to shared qualities or characteristics

###### Clear

view_agenda book_2Free from confusion, uncertainty, or doubt; easily seen, heard or understood

###### Clearly

view_agenda book_2In a clear manner; plainly and openly, without ambiguity

###### Coherent

view_agenda book_2Having a natural or due agreement of parts; connected; consistent; logical, orderly; well-structured and makes sense; rational, with parts that are harmonious; having an internally consistent relation of parts

###### Cohesive

view_agenda book_2Characterised by being united, bound together or having integrated meaning; forming a united whole

###### Comment

view_agenda book_2Express an opinion, observation or reaction in speech or writing; give a judgment based on a given statement or result of a calculation

###### Communicate

view_agenda book_2Convey knowledge and/or understandings to others; make known; transmit

###### Compare

view_agenda book_2Display recognition of similarities and differences and recognise the significance of these similarities and differences

###### Competent

view_agenda book_2Having suitable or sufficient skills, knowledge, experience, etc. for some purpose; adequate but not exceptional; capable; suitable or sufficient for the purpose

###### Competently

view_agenda book_2In an efficient and capable way; in an acceptable and satisfactory, though not outstanding, way

###### Completing the Square

view_agenda book_2Rewriting the quadratic expression \(ax^2 + bx + c\) as \(a(x + \frac{b}{2a})^2 + (c - \frac{b^2}{4a})\) is called completing the square

###### Complex

view_agenda book_2Composed or consisting of many different and interconnected parts or factors; compound; composite; characterised by an involved combination of parts; complicated; intricate; a complex whole or system; a complicated assembly of particulars

###### Complex Familiar

view_agenda book_2Problems of this degree of difficulty require students to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the subject matter and application of skills in a situation where: relationships and interactions have a number of elements, such that connections are made with subject matter within and/or across the domains of mathematics; and all of the information to solve the problem is identifiable; that is – the required procedure is clear from the way the problem is posed, or – in a context that has been a focus of prior learning. Some interpretation, clarification and analysis will be required to develop responses. These problems can focus on any of the objectives.

###### Complex Unfamiliar

view_agenda book_2Problems of this degree of difficulty require students to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the subject matter and application of skills in a situation where: relationships and interactions have a number of elements, such that connections are made within subject matter within and/or across the domains of mathematics; and all the information to solve the problem is not immediately identifiable; that is – the required procedure is not clear from the way the problem is posed, and – in a context in which students have had limited prior experience. Students interpret, clarify and analyse problems to develop responses. Typically, these problems focus on objectives 4, 5 and 6.

###### Composite Functions

view_agenda book_2If \( y = g(x) \) and \( z = f(y) \) for functions \( f \) and \( g \), then \( z \) is a composite function of \( x \); write \( z = f \circ g(x) = f(g(x)) \) e.g. \( z = \sqrt{x + 3} \) expresses \( z \) as a composite of the functions \( f(y) = \sqrt{y} \) and \( g(x) = x^2 + 3 \)

###### Comprehend

view_agenda book_2Understand the meaning or nature of; grasp mentally

###### Comprehensive

view_agenda book_2Inclusive; of large content or scope; including or dealing with all or nearly all elements or aspects of something; wide-ranging; detailed and thorough, including all that is relevant

###### Concavity

view_agenda book_2A description of whether a graph is bending upwards or downwards, a function is concave downwards when the second derivative is negative; a function is concave upwards when the second derivative is positive

###### Concise

view_agenda book_2Expressing much in few words; giving a lot of information clearly and in a few words; brief, comprehensive and to the point; succinct, clear, without repetition of information

###### Concisely

view_agenda book_2In a way that is brief but comprehensive; expressing much in few words; clearly and succinctly

###### Conditional Probability

view_agenda book_2The probability that an event \( A \) occurs can change if it becomes known that another event \( B \) occurs; the new probability is known as a conditional probability and is written as \( P(A|B) \). If \( B \) has occurred, the sample space is reduced by discarding all outcomes that are not in the event \( B \); the new sample space, called the reduced sample space, is \( B \); the conditional probability of the event \( A \) is given by \[ P(A|B) = \frac{P(A \cap B)}{P(B)} \]

###### Conduct

view_agenda book_2Direct in action or course; manage; organise; carry out

###### Confidence Interval

view_agenda book_2Provides a range of values that describe the uncertainty surrounding an estimate

###### Consider

view_agenda book_2Think deliberately or carefully about something, typically before making a decision; take something into account when making a judgment; view attentively or scrutinise; reflect on

###### Considerable

view_agenda book_2Fairly large or great; thought about deliberately and with a purpose informed after careful and deliberate thought

###### Considered

view_agenda book_2Agreeing or accordant; compatible; not self-opposed or self-contradictory, constantly adhering to the same principles; acting in the same way over time, especially so as to be fair or accurate; unchanging in nature, standard, or effect over time; not containing any logical contradictions (of an argument); constant in achievement or effect over a period of time

###### Construct

view_agenda book_2Create or put together (e.g. an argument) by arranging ideas or items; display information in a diagrammatic or logical form; make; build

###### Continuous Random Variable

view_agenda book_2A variable whose set of possible values are all of the real numbers in some interval

###### Contrast

view_agenda book_2Display recognition of differences by deliberate juxtaposition of contrary elements; show how things are different or opposite; give an account of the differences between two or more items or situations, referring to both or all of them throughout

###### Controlled

view_agenda book_2Shows the exercise of restraint or direction over; held in check; restrained, managed or kept within certain bounds

###### Convention

view_agenda book_2The generally agreed upon way in which something is done; in a mathematical context this refers to notation symbols, abbreviations, usage and setting out

###### Convincing

view_agenda book_2Persuaded by argument or proof; leaving no margin of doubt; clear; capable of causing someone to believe that something is true or real; persuading or assuring by argument or evidence; appearing worthy of belief; credible or plausible

###### Cosine Rule

view_agenda book_2For a triangle of side lengths \( a, b, \) and \( c, \) and corresponding angles \( A, B, \) and \( C, \) the cosine rule states that \[ c^2 = a^2+b^2 - 2ab \cos C \]

###### Course

view_agenda book_2A defined amount of learning developed from a subject syllabus

###### Create

view_agenda book_2Bring something into being or existence; produce or evolve from one

###### Creative

view_agenda book_2Resulting from originality of thought or expression; relating to or involving the use of the imagination or original ideas to create something; having good imagination or original ideas

###### Credible

view_agenda book_2Capable or worthy of being believed; believable; convincing

###### Criterion

view_agenda book_2The property or characteristic by which something is judged or appraised

###### Critical

view_agenda book_2Involving skilful judgment as to truth, merit, etc.; involving the objective analysis and evaluation of an issue in order to form a judgment; expressing or involving an analysis of the merits and faults of a work of literature, music, or art; incorporating a detailed and scholarly analysis and commentary (of a text); rationally appraising for logical consistency and merit

###### Critique

view_agenda book_2Review (e.g. a theory, practice, performance) in a detailed, analytical and critical way

###### Cursory

view_agenda book_2Hasty, and therefore not thorough or detailed; performed with little attention to detail; going rapidly over something, without noticing details; hasty; superficial

###### Decide

view_agenda book_2Reach a resolution as a result of consideration; make a choice from a number of alternatives

###### Deduce

view_agenda book_2Reach a conclusion that is necessarily true, provided a given set of assumptions is true; arrive at, reach or draw a logical conclusion from reasoning and the information given

###### Defensible

view_agenda book_2Justifiable by argument; capable of being defended in argument

###### Define

view_agenda book_2Give the meaning of a word, phrase, concept or physical quantity; state meaning and identify or describe qualities

###### Demonstrate

view_agenda book_2Prove or make clear by argument, reasoning or evidence, illustrating with practical example; show by example; give a practical exhibition

###### Derive

view_agenda book_2Arrive at by reasoning; manipulate a mathematical relationship to give a new equation or relationship; in mathematics, obtain the derivative of a function

###### Describe

view_agenda book_2Give an account (written or spoken) of a situation, event, pattern or process, or of the characteristics or features of something

###### Design

view_agenda book_2Produce a plan, simulation, model or similar; plan, form or conceive in the mind; in English, select, organise and use particular elements in the process of text construction for particular purposes; these elements may be linguistic (words), visual (images), audio (sounds), gestural (body language), spatial (arrangement on the page or screen) and multimodal (a combination of more than one)

###### Detailed

view_agenda book_2Executed with great attention to the fine points; meticulous; including many of the parts or facts

###### Determine

view_agenda book_2Establish, conclude or ascertain after consideration, observation, investigation or calculation; decide or come to a resolution

###### Develop

view_agenda book_2Elaborate, expand or enlarge in detail; add detail and fullness to; cause to become more complex or intricate

###### Devise

view_agenda book_2Think out; plan; contrive; invent

###### Differentiate

view_agenda book_2Identify the difference/s in or between two or more things; distinguish, discriminate; recognise or ascertain what makes something distinct from similar things; in mathematics, obtain the derivative of a function

###### Discerning

view_agenda book_2Discriminating; showing intellectual perception; showing good judgment; making thoughtful and astute choices; selected for value or relevance

###### Discrete random variable

view_agenda book_2A variable whose possible values are the counting numbers 0, 1, 2, 3,..., or that form a finite set, e.g. the number of people who attend an AFL grand final, the proportion of heads observed in 100 tosses of a coin

###### Discriminant

view_agenda book_2The discriminant of the quadratic expression \(ax^2 + bx + c\) is the quantity \(b^2 - 4ac\)

###### Discriminate

view_agenda book_2Note, observe or recognise a difference; make or constitute a distinction in or between; differentiate; note or distinguish as different

###### Discriminating

view_agenda book_2Differentiating; distinctive; perceiving differences or distinctions with nicety; possessing discrimination; perceptive and judicious; making judgments about quality; having or showing refined taste or good judgment

###### Discuss

view_agenda book_2Examine by argument; sift the considerations for and against; debate; talk or write about a topic, including a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses; consider, taking into account different issues and ideas, points for and/or against, and supporting opinions or conclusions with evidence

###### Disjointed

view_agenda book_2Disconnected; incoherent; lacking a coherent order/sequence or connection

###### Distinguish

view_agenda book_2Recognise as distinct or different; note points of difference between; discriminate; discern; make clear a difference/s between two or more concepts or items

###### Diverse

view_agenda book_2Of various kinds or forms; different from each other

###### Document

view_agenda book_2Support (e.g. an assertion, claim, statement) with evidence (e.g. decisive information, written references, citations)

###### Draw conclusions

view_agenda book_2Make a judgment based on reasoning and evidence

###### Effective

view_agenda book_2Successful in producing the intended, desired or expected result; meeting the assigned purpose

###### Efficient

view_agenda book_2Working in a well-organised and competent way; maximum productivity with minimal expenditure of effort; acting or producing effectively with a minimum of waste, expense or unnecessary effort

###### Element

view_agenda book_2A component or constituent part of a complex whole; a fundamental, essential or irreducible part of a composite entity

###### Elementary

view_agenda book_2Simple or uncompounded; relating to or dealing with elements, rudiments or first principles (of a subject); of the most basic kind; straightforward and uncomplicated

###### Erroneous

view_agenda book_2Based on or containing error; mistaken; incorrect

###### Essential

view_agenda book_2Absolutely necessary; indispensable; of critical importance for achieving something

###### Euler's number (\(e\))

view_agenda book_2An irrational number whose decimal expansion begins \( e = 2.7182818284590452353602874713527... \)

###### Evaluate

view_agenda book_2Make an appraisal by weighing up or assessing strengths, implications and limitations; make judgements about ideas, works, solutions or methods in relation to selected criteria; examine and determine the merit, value or significance of something, based on criteria

###### Examination

view_agenda book_2A supervised test that assesses the application of a range of cognitions to one or more provided items such as questions, scenarios and/or problems; student responses are completed individually, under supervised conditions, and in a set timeframe

###### Examine

view_agenda book_2Investigate, inspect or scrutinise; inquire or search into; consider or discuss an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue

###### Expected value

view_agenda book_2The expected value \(E(X)\) of a random variable \(X\) is a measure of the central tendency of its distribution; if \(X\) is discrete, \(E(X) = \sum p_i x_i\), where the \(x_i\) are the possible values of \(X\) and \(p_i = P(X = x_i)\); if \(X\) is continuous, \(E(X) = \int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} x p(x)dx\), where \(p(x)\) is the probability density function of \(X\)

###### Experiment

view_agenda book_2Try out or test new ideas or methods, especially in order to discover or prove something; undertake or perform a scientific procedure to test a hypothesis, make a discovery or demonstrate a known fact

###### Explain

view_agenda book_2Make an idea or situation plain or clear by describing it in more detail or revealing relevant facts; give an account; provide additional information

###### Explicit

view_agenda book_2Clearly and distinctly expressing all that is meant; unequivocal; clearly developed or formulated; leaving nothing merely implied or suggested

###### Explore

view_agenda book_2Look into both closely and broadly; scrutinise; inquire into or discuss something in detail

###### Express

view_agenda book_2Convey, show or communicate (e.g. a thought, opinion, feeling, emotion, idea or viewpoint); in words, art, music or movement, convey or suggest a representation of; depict

###### Extended response

view_agenda book_2An open-ended assessment technique that focuses on the interpretation, analysis, examination and/or evaluation of ideas and information in response to a particular situation or stimulus; while students may undertake some research when writing of the extended response, it is not the focus of this technique; an extended response occurs over an extended and defined period of time

###### Extension subject

view_agenda book_2A two-unit subject (Units 3 and 4) for which a syllabus has been developed by QCAA, that is an extension of one or more General subjects, studied concurrently with, Units 3 and 4 of that subject or after completion of, Units 3 and 4 of that subject

###### Extensive

view_agenda book_2Of great extent; wide; broad; far-reaching; comprehensive; lengthy; detailed; large in amount or scale

###### External assessment

view_agenda book_2Summative assessment that occurs towards the end of a course of study and is common to all schools; developed and marked by the QCAA according to a commonly applied marking scheme

###### External examination

view_agenda book_2A supervised test, developed and marked by the QCAA, that assesses the application of a range of cognitions to multiple provided items such as questions, scenarios and/or problems; student responses are completed individually, under supervised conditions, and in a set timeframe

###### Extrapolate

view_agenda book_2Infer or estimate by extending or projecting known information; conjecture; infer from what is known; extend the application of something (e.g. a method or conclusion) to an unknown situation by assuming that existing trends will continue or similar methods will be applicable

###### Factor theorem

view_agenda book_2A theorem linking factors and zeros of a polynomial

###### Factorise

view_agenda book_2Convert the sum of terms in an extended form to a product

###### Factual

view_agenda book_2Relating to or based on facts; concerned with what is actually the case; actually occurring; having verified existence

###### Familiar

view_agenda book_2Well-acquainted; thoroughly conversant with; well known from long or close association; often encountered or experienced; common; (of materials, texts, skills or circumstances) having been the focus of learning experiences or previously encountered in prior learning activities

###### Feasible

view_agenda book_2Capable of being achieved, accomplished or put into effect; reasonable enough to be believed or accepted; probable; likely

###### Fluent

view_agenda book_2Spoken or written with ease; able to speak or write smoothly, easily or readily; articulate; eloquent; in artistic performance, characteristic of a highly developed and excellently controlled technique; flowing; polished; flowing smoothly, easily and effortlessly

###### Fluently

view_agenda book_2In a graceful and seemingly effortless manner; in a way that progresses smoothly and readily

###### Formative assessment

view_agenda book_2Assessment whose major purpose is to improve teaching and student achievement

###### Fragmented

view_agenda book_2Disorganised; broken down; disjointed or isolated

###### Frequent

view_agenda book_2Happening or occurring often at short intervals; constant, habitual, or regular

###### Function

view_agenda book_2A function \( f \) is a rule that associates with each element \( x \) in a set \( S \) a unique element \( f(x) \) in a set \( T \); we write \( x \mapsto f(x) \) to indicate the mapping of \( x \) to \( f(x) \); the set \( S \) is called the domain of \( f \) and the set \( T \) is called the codomain; the subset of \( T \) consisting of all the elements \( f(x): x \in S \) is called the range of \( f \); if we write \( y = f(x) \), we say that \( x \) is the independent variable and \( y \) is the dependent variable

###### Fundamental

view_agenda book_2Forming a necessary base or core; of central importance; affecting or relating to the essential nature of something; part of a foundation or basis

###### Fundamental theorem of calculus

view_agenda book_2Relates differentiation and definite integrals; it has two forms: \(\frac{d}{dx} (\int_{a}^{x} f(t)dt) = f(x) \) and \(\int_{a}^{b} f(x)dx = F(b) - F(a)\)

###### General subject

view_agenda book_2A subject for which a syllabus has been developed by the QCAA with the following characteristics: results from courses developed from General syllabuses contribute to the QCE; General subjects have an external assessment component; results may contribute to ATAR calculations

###### Generate

view_agenda book_2Produce; create; bring into existence

###### Geometric sequence

view_agenda book_2A sequence of numbers where each term after the first is found by multiplying the previous one by a fixed number, called the common ratio, e.g. the sequence 3, 6, 12, 24, ... is a geometric sequence with common ratio 2, similarly, the sequence 40, 20, 10, 5, 2.5, ... is a geometric sequence with common ratio \(\frac{1}{2}\); if the initial term of a geometric sequence is \( t_1 \) and the common ratio of successive members is \( r \), then the \( n^{th} \) term, \( t_n \), of the sequence is given by \( t_n = t_1r^{n-1} \) for \( n \geq 1 \)

###### Gradient

view_agenda book_2The gradient of the straight line passing through points \( (x_1,y_1) \) and \( (x_2,y_2) \) is the ratio \(\frac{y_2-y_1}{x_2-x_1}\); slope is a synonym for gradient

###### Graph of a function

view_agenda book_2The graph of a function \( f \) is the set of all points \( (x, y) \) in the Cartesian plane where \( x \) is in the domain of \( f \) and \( y = f(x) \)

###### Hypothesise

view_agenda book_2Formulate a supposition to account for known facts or observed occurrences; conjecture, theorise, speculate; especially on uncertain or tentative grounds

###### ISMG

view_agenda book_2Instrument-specific marking guide; a tool for marking that describes the characteristics evident in student responses and aligns with the identified objectives for the assessment (see

###### Identify

view_agenda book_2Distinguish; locate, recognise and name; establish or indicate who or what someone or something is; provide an answer from a number of possibilities; recognise and state a distinguishing factor or feature

###### Illogical

view_agenda book_2Lacking sense or sound reasoning; contrary to or disregardful of the rules of logic; unreasonable

###### Implement

view_agenda book_2Put something into effect, e.g. a plan or proposal

###### Implicit

view_agenda book_2Implied, rather than expressly stated; not plainly expressed; capable of being inferred from something else

###### Improbable

view_agenda book_2Not probable; unlikely to be true or to happen; not easy to believe

###### In-depth

view_agenda book_2Comprehensive and with thorough coverage; extensive or profound; well-balanced or fully developed

###### Inaccurate

view_agenda book_2Not accurate

###### Inappropriate

view_agenda book_2Not suitable or proper in the circumstances

###### Inconsistent

view_agenda book_2Lacking agreement, as one thing with another, or two or more things in relation to each other; at variance; not consistent; not in keeping; not in accordance; incompatible, incongruous

###### Independent

view_agenda book_2Thinking or acting for oneself, not influenced by others

###### Independent events

view_agenda book_2Two events are independent if knowing that one occurs tells us nothing about the other; the concept can be defined formally using probabilities in various ways, e.g., events \( A \) and \( B \) are independent if \( P(A \cap B) = P(A)P(B) \), if \( P(A|B) = P(A) \), or if \( P(B|A) = P(B|A) \), for events \( A \) and \( B \) with non-zero probabilities, any one of these equations implies any other

###### Index laws

view_agenda book_2The rules \( a^x \cdot a^y = a^{x+y} \), \( a^{-x} = \frac{1}{a^x} \), \( (a^x)^y = a^{xy} \), and \( (ab)^x = a^x b^x \), for any real numbers \( x,y \) and \( a,b \), with \( a > 0 \) and \( b > 0 \)

###### Infer

view_agenda book_2Derive or conclude something from evidence and reasoning, rather than from explicit statements; listen or read beyond what has been literally expressed; imply or hint at

###### Informed

view_agenda book_2Knowledgeable; learned; having relevant knowledge; being conversant with the topic; based on an understanding of the facts of the situation (of a decision or judgment)

###### Innovative

view_agenda book_2New and original; introducing new ideas; original and creative in thinking

###### Insightful

view_agenda book_2Showing understanding of a situation or process; understanding relationships in complex situations; informed by observation and deduction

###### Instrument-specific marking guide

view_agenda book_2ISMGA; a tool for marking that describes the characteristics evident in student responses and aligns with the identified objectives for the assessment (see

###### Integral

view_agenda book_2Adjective necessary for the completeness of the whole; essential or fundamental; noun in mathematics, the result of integration; an expression from which a given function, equation, or system of equations is derived by differentiation

###### Intended

view_agenda book_2Designed; meant; done on purpose; intentional

###### Internal assessment

view_agenda book_2Assessments that are developed by schools; summative internal assessments are endorsed by the QCAA before use in schools and results externally confirmed contribute towards a student's final result

###### Interpret

view_agenda book_2Use knowledge and understanding to recognise trends and draw conclusions from given information; make clear or explicit; elucidate or understand in a particular way; bring out the meaning of, e.g. a dramatic or musical work, by performance or execution; bring out the

###### Interval estimate

view_agenda book_2In statistics estimation, the use of information derived from a sample to produce an estimate of an unknown probability or population parameter; an interval derived from the sample that, in some sense, is likely to contain the parameter; an example of an interval estimate for p is a confidence interval centred on the relative frequency f

###### Investigate

view_agenda book_2Carry out an examination or formal inquiry in order to establish or obtain facts and reach new conclusions; search, inquire into, interpret and draw conclusions about data and information

###### Investigation

view_agenda book_2An assessment technique that requires students to research a specific problem, question, issue, design challenge or hypothesis through the collection, analysis and synthesis of primary and/or secondary data; it uses research or investigative practices to assess a range of cognitions in a particular context; an investigation occurs over an extended and defined period of time

###### Irrelevant

view_agenda book_2Not relevant; not applicable or pertinent; not connected with or relevant to something

###### Isolated

view_agenda book_2Detached, separate, or unconnected with other things; one-off; something set apart or characterised as different in some way

###### Judge

view_agenda book_2Form an opinion or conclusion about; apply both procedural and deliberative operations to make a determination

###### Justified

view_agenda book_2Sound reasons or evidence are provided to support an argument, statement or conclusion

###### Justify

view_agenda book_2Give reasons or evidence to support an answer, response or conclusion; show or prove how an argument, statement or conclusion is right or reasonable

###### Learning Area

view_agenda book_2A grouping of subjects, with related characteristics, within a broad field of learning, e.g. the Arts, sciences, languages

###### Level of Confidence

view_agenda book_2The level of confidence associated with a confidence interval for an unknown population parameter is the probability that a random confidence interval will contain the parameter

###### Local and Global Maxima and Minima

view_agenda book_2A stationary point on the graph y = f(x) of a differentiable function is a point where f

###### Logarithm Laws

view_agenda book_2The algebraic properties of logarithms include the rules \(log_a(xy) = log_a(x) + log_a(y)\), \(log_a(x/y) = log_a(x) - log_a(y)\), and \(log_a(x^n) = nlog_a(x)\) and \(log_a(x) = \frac{log_b(x)}{log_b(a)}\) for any positive real numbers x, y and a different from 1

###### Logical

view_agenda book_2Rational and valid; internally consistent; reasonable; reasoning in accordance with the principles/rules of logic or formal argument; characterised by or capable of clear, sound reasoning; (of an action, decision, etc.) expected or sensible under the circumstances

###### Logically

view_agenda book_2According to the rules of logic or formal argument; in a way that shows clear, sound reasoning; in a way that is expected or sensible

###### Make Decisions

view_agenda book_2Select from available options; weigh up positives and negatives of each option and consider all the alternatives to arrive at a position

###### Manipulate

view_agenda book_2Adapt or change to suit one's purpose

###### Margin of Error

view_agenda book_2The margin of error of a confidence interval of the form \( - E < p < + E\) is E, the half-width of the confidence interval; if p is actually in the confidence interval it is the maximum difference between \(f\) and \(p\)

###### Mathematical Model

view_agenda book_2A depiction of a situation that expresses relationships using mathematical concepts and language, usually as an algebraic, diagrammatic, graphical or tabular representation

###### Mathematical modelling

view_agenda book_2Involves: formulating a mathematical representation of a problem derived from within a real-world context; using mathematics concepts and techniques to obtain results; interpreting the results by referring back to the original problem context; revising the model (where necessary)

###### Mental procedures

view_agenda book_2A domain of knowledge in Marzano's taxonomy, and acted upon by the cognitive, metacognitive and self-systems; sometimes referred to as

###### Methodical

view_agenda book_2Performed, disposed or acting in a systematic way; orderly; characterised by method or order; performed or carried out systematically

###### Minimal

view_agenda book_2Least possible; small, the least amount; negligible

###### Modify

view_agenda book_2Change the form or qualities of; make partial or minor changes to something

###### Multimodal

view_agenda book_2Uses a combination of at least two modes (e.g. spoken, written), delivered at the same time, to communicate ideas and information to a live or virtual audience, for a particular purpose; the selected modes are integrated so that each mode contributes significantly to the response

###### Mutually exclusive events

view_agenda book_2Two events, A and B, are mutually exclusive if there is no outcome in which both events occur; for mutually exclusive events \(P(A \cup B) = P(A) + P(B)\)

###### Narrow

view_agenda book_2Limited in range or scope; lacking breadth of view; limited in amount; barely sufficient or adequate; restricted

###### Nuanced

view_agenda book_2Showing a subtle difference or distinction in expression, meaning, response, etc.; finely differentiated; characterised by subtle shades of meaning or expression; a subtle distinction, variation or quality; sensibility to, awareness of, or ability to express delicate shadings, as of meaning, feeling, or value

###### Objectives

view_agenda book_2See

###### Observations

view_agenda book_2Data or information required to solve a mathematical problem and/or develop a mathematical model; empirical evidence

###### Obvious

view_agenda book_2Clearly perceptible or evident; easily seen, recognised or understood

###### Optimal

view_agenda book_2Best, most favourable, under a particular set of circumstances

###### Organise

view_agenda book_2Arrange, order; form as or into a whole consisting of interdependent or coordinated parts, especially for harmonious or united action

###### Organised

view_agenda book_2Systematically ordered and arranged; having a formal organisational structure to arrange, coordinate and carry out activities

###### Outstanding

view_agenda book_2Exceptionally good; clearly noticeable; prominent; conspicuous; striking

###### Parameter

view_agenda book_2A characteristic value of a particular population, such as the mean; remains constant for a particular analysis, while the values assigned to variables change; the values that allow a model to define a particular situation, e.g. \(m\) and \(c\) in the function \(y = mx + c\)

###### Partial

view_agenda book_2Not total or general; existing only in part; attempted, but incomplete

###### Particular

view_agenda book_2Distinguished or different from others or from the ordinary; noteworthy

###### Pascal’s triangle

view_agenda book_2A triangular arrangement of binomial coefficients in which the \(n\)th row consists of the binomial coefficients \({n \choose r}\); for \(0 \leq r \leq n\), each interior entry is the sum of the two entries above it, and the sum of the entries in the \(n\)th row is \(2^n\)

###### Perceptive

view_agenda book_2Having or showing insight and the ability to perceive or understand; discerning (see also 'discriminating')

###### Performance

view_agenda book_2An assessment technique that requires students to demonstrate a range of cognitive, technical, creative and/or expressive skills and to apply theoretical and conceptual understandings, through the psychomotor domain; it involves student application of identified skills when responding to a task that involves solving a problem, providing a solution or conveying meaning or intent; a performance is developed over an extended and defined period of time

###### Persuasive

view_agenda book_2Capable of changing someone's ideas, opinions or beliefs; appearing worthy of approval or acceptance; (of an argument or statement) communicating reasonably or credibly (see also 'convincing')

###### Perusal time

view_agenda book_2Time allocated in an assessment to reading items and tasks and associated assessment materials; no writing is allowed; students may not make notes and may not commence responding to the assessment in the response space/book

###### Piece-wise function

view_agenda book_2A function which is defined by more than one formula where each formula applies to a certain interval of the main function's domain

###### Planning time

view_agenda book_2Time allocated in an assessment to planning how to respond to items and tasks and associated assessment materials; students may make notes but may not commence responding to the assessment in the response space/book; notes made during planning are not collected, nor are they graded or used as evidence of achievement

###### Point estimates of probabilities

view_agenda book_2In statistics estimation, the use of information derived from a sample to produce an estimate of an unknown probability or population parameter; if the estimate is a single number, this number is called a point estimate; e.g. the relative frequency of a specified event in a large number of Bernoulli trials

###### Points of inflection

view_agenda book_2A point P on the graph of y = f(x) is a point of inflection if the concavity changes at P, i.e. points near P on one side of P lie above the tangent at P and points near P on the other side of P lie below the tangent at P

###### Polished

view_agenda book_2Flawless or excellent; performed with skilful ease

###### Polynomial

view_agenda book_2An expression consisting of the sum of two or more terms, each of which is the product of a constant and a variable raised to an integral power: ax^2 + bx + c is a polynomial, where a, b, and c are constants and x is a variable.

###### Power function

view_agenda book_2A function of the form f(x) = ax^p where a is any constant other than zero and p is a real number

###### Precise

view_agenda book_2Definite or exact; definitely or strictly stated, defined or fixed; characterised by definite or exact expression or execution

###### Precision

view_agenda book_2Accuracy; exactness; exact observance of forms in conduct or actions

###### Predict

view_agenda book_2Give an expected result of an upcoming action or event; suggest what may happen based on available information

###### Probability density function

view_agenda book_2The probability density function of a continuous random variable is a function that describes the relative likelihood that the random variable takes a particular value; formally, if p(x) is the probability density of the continuous random variable X, then the probability that X takes a value in some interval [a, b] is given by \(\int_{a}^{b} p(x) dx\)

###### Procedural vocabulary

view_agenda book_2Instructional terms used in a mathematical context (e.g. calculate, convert, determine, identify, justify, show, sketch, solve, state).

###### Product

view_agenda book_2An assessment technique that focuses on the output or result of a process requiring the application of a range of cognitive, physical, technical, creative and/or expressive skills, and theoretical and conceptual understandings; a product is developed over an extended and defined period of time

###### Product rule

view_agenda book_2Relates the derivative of the product of two functions to the functions and their derivatives; if \( h(x) = f(x)g(x) \), then \( h'(x) = f(x)g'(x) + f'(x)g(x) \), and in Leibniz notation: \( \frac{d}{dx} (uv) = u \frac{dv}{dx} + \frac{du}{dx} v \)

###### Proficient

view_agenda book_2Well advanced or expert in any art, science or subject; competent, skilled or adept in doing or using something

###### Project

view_agenda book_2An assessment technique that focuses on a problem-solving process requiring the application of a range of cognitive, technical and creative skills that documents understanding; the response is a coherent work and theoretical the iterative process undertaken to develop a solution and includes written paragraphs and annotations, diagrams, sketches, drawings, photographs, video, spoken presentations, physical prototypes and/or models; a project is developed over an extended and defined period of time

###### Propose

view_agenda book_2Put forward (e.g. a point of view, idea, argument, suggestion) for consideration or action

###### Prove

view_agenda book_2Use a sequence of steps to obtain the required result in a formal way

###### Psychomotor Procedures

view_agenda book_2A domain of knowledge in Marzano's taxonomy, and acted upon by the cognitive, metacognitive and self-systems; these are physical procedures used to negotiate daily life and to engage in complex physical activities; the two categories of psychomotor procedures are skills (foundational procedures and simple combination procedures) and processes (complex combination procedures)

###### Purposeful

view_agenda book_2Having an intended or desired result; having a useful purpose; determined; resolute; full of meaning; significant; intentional

###### QCE

view_agenda book_2Queensland Certificate of Education

###### Quadratic Formula

view_agenda book_2If \(ax^2 + bx + c = 0\) with \(a \neq 0\), then \(x = \frac{-b \pm \sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}\) this formula for the roots is called the quadratic formula

###### Qualitative Statements

view_agenda book_2Statements relating to the quality or qualities; statements of a non-numerical nature

###### Quantile

view_agenda book_2A quantile \(t_q\) for a continuous random variable \(X\) is defined by \(P(X > t_q) = \alpha\), where \(0 < \alpha < 1\); the median of \(m\) of \(X\) is the quantile corresponding to \(\alpha = 0.5: P(X > m) = 0.5\)

###### Quantitative Analysis

view_agenda book_2Use of mathematical measurements and calculations, including statistics, to analyse the relationships between variables; may include use of the correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, simple residual analysis or outlier analysis

###### Quotient Rule

view_agenda book_2Relates the derivative of the quotient of two functions to the functions and their derivatives; if \( h(x) = \frac{f(x)}{g(x)} \), then \( h'(x) = \frac{g(x)f'(x)-f(x)g'(x)}{(g(x))^2} \), and in Leibniz notation: \( \frac{d}{dx} \left( \frac{u}{v} \right) = \frac{v \frac{du}{dx} - u \frac{dv}{dx}}{v^2} \)

###### Radian measure

view_agenda book_2The radian measure \(\theta\) of an angle in a sector of a circle is defined by \(\theta = \frac{r}{s}\), where \(r\) is the radius and \(s\) is the arc length, thus an angle whose degree measure is \(180\) has radian measure \(\pi\)

###### Random variable

view_agenda book_2A numerical quantity whose value depends on the outcome of a chance experiment, e.g. the number of people who attend an AFL grand final, the proportion of heads observed in 100 tosses of a coin, the number of tonnes of wheat produced in Australia in a year

###### Realise

view_agenda book_2Create or make (e.g. a musical, artistic or dramatic work); actualise; make real or concrete; give reality or substance to

###### Reasonable

view_agenda book_2Endowed with reason; having sound judgment; fair and sensible; based on good sense; average; appropriate, moderate

###### Reasonableness of solutions

view_agenda book_2To justify solutions obtained with or without technology using everyday language, mathematical language or a combination of both; may be applied to calculations to check working, or to questions that require a relationship back to the context

###### Reasoned

view_agenda book_2Logical and sound; based on logic or good sense; logically thought out and presented with justification; guided by reason; well-grounded; considered

###### Recall

view_agenda book_2Remember; present remembered ideas, facts or experiences; bring something back into thought, attention or into one's mind

###### Recognise

view_agenda book_2Identify or recall particular features of information from knowledge; identify that an item, characteristic or quality exists; perceive as existing or true; be aware of or acknowledge

###### Refined

view_agenda book_2Developed or improved so as to be precise, exact or subtle

###### Reflect on

view_agenda book_2Think about deeply and carefully

###### Rehearsed

view_agenda book_2Practised; previously experienced; practised extensively

###### Related

view_agenda book_2Associated with or linked to

###### Relevance

view_agenda book_2Being related to the matter at hand

###### Relevant

view_agenda book_2Bearing upon or connected with the matter in hand; to the purpose; applicable and pertinent; having a direct bearing on

###### Repetitive

view_agenda book_2Containing or characterised by repetition, especially when unnecessary or tiresome

###### Reporting

view_agenda book_2Providing information that succinctly describes student performance at different junctures throughout a course of study

###### Representatively sample

view_agenda book_2In this syllabus, a selection of subject matter that accurately reflects the intended learning of a topic

###### Resolve

view_agenda book_2In the Arts, consolidate and communicate intent through a synthesis of ideas and application of media to express meaning

###### Routine

view_agenda book_2Often encountered, previously experienced; commonplace; customary and regular; well-practised; performed as part of a regular procedure, rather than for a special reason

###### Rudimentary

view_agenda book_2Relating to rudiments or first principles; elementary; undeveloped; involving or limited to basic principles; relating to an immature, undeveloped or basic form

###### Safe

view_agenda book_2Secure; not risky

###### Sample Proportion

view_agenda book_2The fraction of samples which are successes i.e. \( p = \frac{x}{n} \) where \( x \) is the number of successes and \( n \) is the number of trials

###### Second Derivative Test

view_agenda book_2According to the second derivative test, if \( f'(x) = 0 \), then \( f(x) \) is a local maximum if \( f''(x) < 0 \) and \( f(x) \) is a local minimum if \( f''(x) > 0 \)

###### Secure

view_agenda book_2Sure; certain; able to be counted on; self-confident; poised; dependable; confident; assured; not liable to fail

###### Select

view_agenda book_2Choose in preference to another or others; pick out

###### Sensitive

view_agenda book_2Capable of perceiving with a sense or senses; aware of the attitudes, feelings or circumstances of others; having acute mental or emotional sensibility; relating to or connected with the senses or sensation

###### Sequence

view_agenda book_2Place in a continuous or connected series; arrange in a particular order

###### Show

view_agenda book_2Provide the relevant reasoning to support a response

###### Significant

view_agenda book_2Important; of consequence; expressing a meaning; indicative; includes all that is important; sufficiently great or important to be worthy of attention; noteworthy; having a particular meaning; indicative of something

###### Simple

view_agenda book_2Easy to understand, deal with and use; not complex or complicated; plain; not elaborate or artificial; may concern a single or basic aspect; involving few elements, components or steps

###### Simple Familiar

view_agenda book_2Problems of this degree of difficulty require students to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the subject matter and application of skills in a situation where: relationships and interactions are obvious and have few elements; and all of the information to solve the problem is identifiable; that is - the required procedure is clear from the way the problem is posed, or - in a context that has been a focus of prior learning. Students are not required to interpret, clarify and analyse problems to develop responses. Typically, these problems focus on objectives 1, 2 and 3.

###### Simplistic

view_agenda book_2Characterised by extreme simplification, especially if misleading; oversimplified

###### Sine Rule

view_agenda book_2For a triangle of side lengths, a, b and c and angles A, B and C, the sine rule states that: \(\frac{a}{\sin(A)} = \frac{b}{\sin(B)} = \frac{c}{\sin(C)}\)

###### Sketch

view_agenda book_2Execute a drawing or painting in simple form, giving essential features but not necessarily with detail or accuracy; in mathematics, represent by means of a diagram or graph; the sketch should give a general idea of the required shape or relationship and should include features

###### Skilled

view_agenda book_2Having or showing the knowledge, skill or training to perform a certain activity or task well; having ability; trained or experienced; showing, involving or requiring skill

###### Skillful

view_agenda book_2Having technical facility or practical ability; possessing, showing, involving or requiring skill; expert, dexterous; demonstrating the knowledge, ability or training to perform a certain activity or task well; trained, practised or experienced

###### Solve

view_agenda book_2Find an answer to, explanation for, or means of dealing with (e.g. a problem); work out the answer or solution to (e.g. a mathematical problem); obtain the answer/s using algebraic, numerical and/or graphical methods

###### Sophisticated

view_agenda book_2Of intellectual complexity; reflecting a high degree of skill, intelligence, etc.; employing advanced or refined methods or concepts; highly developed or complicated

###### Specific

view_agenda book_2Clearly defined or identified; precise and clear in making statements or issuing instructions; having a special application or reference; explicit, or definite; peculiar or proper to something, as qualities, characteristics, effects, etc.

###### Sporadic

view_agenda book_2Happening now and again or at intervals; irregular or occasional; appearing in scattered or isolated instances

###### Standard Deviation

view_agenda book_2A measure of the variability or spread of a dataset; it indicates the degree to which the individual data values are spread around their mean; the standard deviation of \(n\) observations \(x_1,x_2,...,x_n\) is: \(s = \sqrt{\frac{\sum (x_i - \bar{x})^2}{n - 1}}\)

###### Statement

view_agenda book_2A sentence or assertion

###### Straightforward

view_agenda book_2Without difficulty; uncomplicated; direct; easy to do or understand

###### Structure

view_agenda book_2Verb: give a pattern, organisation or arrangement to; construct or arrange according to a plan; Noun: in languages, arrangement of words into larger units, e.g., phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs and whole texts, in line with cultural, intercultural and textual conventions

###### Structured

view_agenda book_2Organised or arranged so as to produce a desired result

###### Subject

view_agenda book_2A branch or area of knowledge or learning defined by a syllabus; school subjects are usually based in a discipline or field of study (see also 'course')

###### Subject Matter

view_agenda book_2The subject-specific body of information, mental procedures and psychomotor procedures that are necessary for students' learning and engagement within that subject

###### Substantial

view_agenda book_2Of ample or considerable amount, quantity, size, etc.; of real worth or value; firmly or solidly established; of real significance; reliable; important, worthwhile

###### Substantiated

view_agenda book_2Established by proof or competent evidence

###### Subtle

view_agenda book_2Fine or delicate in meaning or intent; making use of indirect methods; not straightforward or obvious

###### Successful

view_agenda book_2Achieving or having achieved success; accomplishing a desired aim or result

###### Succinct

view_agenda book_2Expressed in few words; concise; terse; characterised by conciseness or brevity; brief and clear

###### Sufficient

view_agenda book_2Enough or adequate for the purpose

###### Suitable

view_agenda book_2Appropriate; fitting; conforming or agreeing in nature, condition, or action

###### Summarise

view_agenda book_2Give a brief statement of a general theme or major point/s; present ideas and information in fewer words and in sequence

###### Summative Assessment

view_agenda book_2Assessment whose major purpose is to indicate student achievement; summative assessments contribute towards a student's subject result

###### Superficial

view_agenda book_2Concerned with or comprehending only what is on the surface or obvious; shallow; not profound, thorough, deep or complete; existing or occurring at or on the surface; cursory; lacking depth of character or understanding; apparent and sometimes trivial

###### Supported

view_agenda book_2Corroborated; given greater credibility by providing evidence

###### Sustained

view_agenda book_2Carried on continuously, without interruption, or without any diminishing of intensity or extent

###### Syllabus

view_agenda book_2A document that prescribes the curriculum for a course of study

###### Syllabus Objectives

view_agenda book_2Outline what the school is required to teach and what students have the opportunity to learn; described in terms of actions that operate on the subject matter; the overarching objectives for a course of study (see also unit objectives, assessment objectives)

###### Symbolise

view_agenda book_2Represent or identify by a symbol or symbols

###### Synthesise

view_agenda book_2Combine different parts or elements (e.g., information, ideas, components) into a whole, in order to create new understanding

###### Systematic

view_agenda book_2Done or acting according to a fixed plan or system; methodical; organised and logical; having, showing, or involving a system, method, or plan; characterised by system or method; methodical; arranged in, or comprising an ordered system

###### Technical Vocabulary

view_agenda book_2Terms that have a precise mathematical meaning (e.g. categorical data, chain rule, decimal fraction, imaginary number, log laws, linear regression, sine rule, whole number); may include everyday words used in a mathematical context (e.g. capacity, differentiate, evaluate, integrate, order, property, sample, union)

###### Test

view_agenda book_2Take measures to check the quality, performance or reliability of something

###### Thorough

view_agenda book_2Carried out through, or applied to the whole of something; carried out completely and carefully; including all that is required; complete with attention to every detail; not superficial or partial; performed or written with care and completeness; taking pains to do something carefully and completely

###### Thoughtful

view_agenda book_2Occupied with, or given to thought; contemplative; meditative; reflective; characterised by or manifesting thought

###### Topic

view_agenda book_2A division of, or sub-section within a unit; all topics/sub-topics within a unit are interrelated

###### Unclear

view_agenda book_2Not clear or distinct; not easy to understand; obscure

###### Understand

view_agenda book_2Perceive what is meant by something; grasp; be familiar with (e.g. an idea); construct meaning from messages, including oral, written and graphic communication

###### Uneven

view_agenda book_2Unequal; not properly corresponding or agreeing; irregular; varying; not uniform; not equally balanced

###### Unfamiliar

view_agenda book_2Not previously encountered; situations or materials that have not been the focus of prior learning experiences or activities

###### Uniform Discrete Random Variable

view_agenda book_2A variable whose possible values have equal probability of occurrence; if there are \( n \) possible values, the probability of occurrence of any one of them is \( \frac{1}{n} \)

###### Unit

view_agenda book_2A defined amount of subject matter delivered in a specific context or with a particular focus; it includes unit objectives particular to the unit, subject matter and assessment direction

###### Unit Objectives

view_agenda book_2Drawn from the syllabus objectives and contextualised for the subject matter and requirements of a particular unit; they are assessed at least once in the unit

###### Unrelated

view_agenda book_2Having no relationship; unconnected

###### Use

view_agenda book_2Operate or put into effect; apply knowledge or rules to put theory into practice

###### Vague

view_agenda book_2Not definite in statement or meaning; not explicit or precise; not definitely fixed, determined or known; of uncertain, indefinite or unclear character or meaning; not clear in thought or understanding; couched in general or indefinite terms; not definitely or precisely expressed; deficient in details or particulars; thinking or communicating in an unfocused or imprecise way

###### Valid

view_agenda book_2Sound, just or well-founded; authoritative; having a sound basis in logic or fact (of an argument or point); reasonable or cogent; able to be supported; legitimate and defensible; applicable

###### Variable

view_agenda book_2Adjective: Apt or liable to vary or change; changeable; inconsistent; (readily) susceptible or capable of variation; fluctuating, uncertain; Noun: In mathematics, a symbol, or the quantity it signifies, that may represent any one of a given set of number and other objects

###### Variance

view_agenda book_2The variance \(Var(X)\) of a random variable \(X\) is a measure of the spread of its distribution; if \(X\) is discrete, \(Var(X) = \sum p_i(x_i - \mu)^2\), where \(\mu = E(X)\) is the expected value; if \(X\) is continuous, \(Var(X) = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} (x - \mu)^2p(x)dx\)

###### Variety

view_agenda book_2A number or range of things of different kinds, or the same general class, that are distinct in character or quality; a number of different modes or references

###### Vertical Line Test

view_agenda book_2A test to determine whether a relation is a function; a relation between two real variables \(x\) and \(y\) is a function and \(y = f(x)\) for some function \(f\), if (and only if) each vertical line, i.e. each line parallel to the \(y\)-axis, intersects the graph of the relation in at most one point

###### Wide

view_agenda book_2Of great range or scope; embracing a great number or variety of subjects, cases, etc.; of full extent

###### With Expression

view_agenda book_2In words, art, music or movement, conveying or indicating feeling, spirit, character, etc.; a way of expressing or representing something; vivid, effective or persuasive communication

###### \(e\)

view_agenda book_2The base of the natural logarithms, and can be defined in various ways, including \( e = \lim_{n \to +\infty} (1 + \frac{1}{n})^n \) and \( e = 1 + \frac{1}{1!} + \frac{1}{2!} + \frac{1}{3!} + ... \)