# Glossary

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###### ATAR

view_agenda book_2Australian Tertiary Admission Rank

###### Accomplished

view_agenda book_2Highly trained or skilled in a particular activity; perfected in knowledge or training; expert

###### Accuracy

view_agenda book_2The condition or quality of being true, correct or exact; freedom from error or defect; precision or exactness; correctness; in science, the extent to which a measurement result represents the quantity it purports to measure; an accurate measurement result includes an estimate of the true value and an estimate of the uncertainty

###### Accurate

view_agenda book_2Precise and exact; to the point; consistent with or exactly conforming to a truth, standard, rule, model, convention or known facts; free from error or defect; meticulous; correct in all details

###### Adept

view_agenda book_2Very/highly skilled or proficient at something; expert

###### Adequate

view_agenda book_2Satisfactory or acceptable in quality or quantity equal to the requirement or occasion

###### Adjacency Matrix

view_agenda book_2An adjacency matrix for a non-directed graph with n vertices is an n x n matrix in which the entry in row i and column j is the number of edges joining the vertices i and j; in an adjacency matrix, a loop is counted as one edge; for a directed graph, the entry in row i and column j is the number of directed edges (arcs) joining the vertex i and j in the direction i to j

###### Algorithm

view_agenda book_2A precisely defined procedure that can be applied and systematically followed through to a conclusion

###### Analyse

view_agenda book_2Dissect to ascertain and examine constituent parts and/or their relationships; break down or examine in order to identify the essential elements, features, components or structure; determine the logic and reasonableness of information; examine or consider something in order to explain and interpret it, for the purpose of finding meaning or relationships and identifying patterns, similarities and differences

###### Analytic Procedures

view_agenda book_2Using algebraic and/or numerical techniques as the primary approach to solving a problem

###### Annuity

view_agenda book_2A compound interest investment from which payments are made on a regular basis for a defined period of time

###### Applied Learning

view_agenda book_2The acquisition and application of knowledge, understanding and skills in real-world or lifelike contexts that may encompass workplace, industry and community situations; it emphasises learning through doing and includes both theory and the application of theory, connecting subject knowledge and understanding with the development of practical skills

###### Applied subject

view_agenda book_2A subject whose primary pathway is work and vocational education; it emphasises applied learning and community connections; a subject for which a syllabus has been developed by the QCAA with the following characteristics: results from courses developed from Applied syllabuses contribute to the QCE; results may contribute to ATAR calculations

###### Apply

view_agenda book_2Use knowledge and understanding in response to a given situation or circumstance; carry out or use a procedure in a given or particular situation

###### Appraise

view_agenda book_2Evaluate the worth, significance or status of something; judge or consider a text or piece of work

###### Appreciate

view_agenda book_2Recognise or make a judgment about the value or worth of something; understand fully; grasp the full implications of

###### Appropriate

view_agenda book_2Acceptable; suitable or fitting for a particular purpose, circumstance, context, etc.

###### Apt

view_agenda book_2Suitable to the purpose or occasion; fitting, appropriate

###### Area of study

view_agenda book_2A division of, or a section within a unit

###### Argue

view_agenda book_2Give reasons for or against something; challenge or debate an issue or idea; persuade, prove or try to prove by giving reasons

###### Arithmetic sequence

view_agenda book_2A sequence of numbers such that the difference between any two successive numbers of the sequence is constant, e.g. the sequence 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, ... is an arithmetic sequence with first term 2 and common difference 3, by inspection of the sequence, the rule for the nth term \( t_n \) of this sequence is \( t_n = 2 + (n - 1)3 = 3n - 1, n \geq 1 \); if \( t_n \) is used to denote the \( n \)th term in the sequence, then a recursion relation that will generate this sequence is \( t_{n+1} = t_n + 3, n \geq 1 \)

###### Aspect

view_agenda book_2A particular part of a feature of something; a facet, phase or part of a whole

###### Assess

view_agenda book_2Measure, determine, evaluate, estimate or make a judgment about the value, quality, outcomes, results, size, significance, nature or extent of something

###### Assessment

view_agenda book_2Purposeful and systematic collection of information about students' achievements

###### Assessment instrument

view_agenda book_2A tool or device used to gather information about student achievement

###### Assessment objectives

view_agenda book_2Drawn from the unit objectives and contextualised for the requirements of the assessment instrument (see also

###### Assessment technique

view_agenda book_2The method used to gather evidence about student achievement, (e.g. examination, project, investigation)

###### Association

view_agenda book_2A general term used to describe the relationship between two (or more) variables; often used interchangeably with

###### Assumptions

view_agenda book_2Conditions that are stated to be true when beginning to solve a problem

###### Astute

view_agenda book_2Showing an ability to accurately assess situations or people; of keen discernment

###### Authoritative

view_agenda book_2Able to be trusted as being accurate or true; reliable; commanding and self-confident; likely to be respected and obeyed

###### Average percentage method

view_agenda book_2Used for calculating a seasonal index, the data for each season are expressed as percentages of the average for the year; the percentages for the corresponding seasons for different years are then averaged using a mean or median to arrive at a seasonal index

###### Balanced

view_agenda book_2Keeping or showing a balance; not biased; fairly judged or presented; taking everything into account in a fair, well-judged way

###### Basic

view_agenda book_2Fundamental

###### Bearing

view_agenda book_2The direction of a fixed point, or the path of an object, from the point of observation

###### Bipartite graph

view_agenda book_2A graph whose set of vertices can be split into two distinct groups in such a way that each edge of the graph joins a vertex in the first group to a vertex in the second group

###### Break-even point

view_agenda book_2The point at which revenue begins to exceed costs

###### Bridge

view_agenda book_2A bridge is an edge in a connected graph that, if removed, leaves a graph disconnected

###### Calculate

view_agenda book_2Determine or find (e.g. a number, answer) by using mathematical processes; obtain a numerical answer showing the relevant stages in the working; ascertain/determine from given facts, figures or information

###### Categorical variable

view_agenda book_2A variable whose values are categories, e.g. favourite colour, type of pet

###### Categorise

view_agenda book_2Place in or assign to a particular class or group; arrange or order by classes or categories; classify, sort out, sort, separate

###### Causal relationship

view_agenda book_2A relationship between an explanatory variable and a response variable is said to be causal if the change in the explanatory variable causes a change in the response variable

###### Challenging

view_agenda book_2Difficult but interesting; testing one

###### Characteristic

view_agenda book_2A typical feature or quality

###### Clarify

view_agenda book_2Make clear or intelligible; explain; make a statement or situation less confused and more comprehensible

###### Clarity

view_agenda book_2Clearness of thought or expression; the quality of being coherent and intelligible; free from obscurity of sense; without ambiguity; explicit; easy to perceive, understand or interpret

###### Classify

view_agenda book_2Arrange, distribute or order in classes or categories according to shared qualities or characteristics

###### Clear

view_agenda book_2Free from confusion, uncertainty, or doubt; easily seen, heard or understood

###### Clearly

view_agenda book_2In a clear manner; plainly and openly, without ambiguity

###### Coefficient of Determination

view_agenda book_2In a linear model between two variables, the coefficient of determination (\(R^2\)) is the proportion of the total variation that can be explained by the linear relationship existing between the two variables, usually expressed as a percentage

###### Coherent

view_agenda book_2Having a natural or due agreement of parts; connected, consistent, logical, orderly; well-structured and makes sense; rational; with parts that are harmonious; having an internally consistent relation of parts

###### Cohesive

view_agenda book_2Characterised by being united, bound together or having integrated meaning; forming a united whole

###### Column Matrix

view_agenda book_2A matrix that has only one column

###### Comment

view_agenda book_2Express an opinion, observation or reaction in speech or writing; give a judgment based on a given statement or result of a calculation

###### Communicate

view_agenda book_2Convey knowledge and/or understandings to others; make known; transmit

###### Compare

view_agenda book_2Display recognition of similarities and differences and recognise the significance of these similarities and differences

###### Competent

view_agenda book_2Having suitable or sufficient skills, knowledge, experience, etc. for some purpose; adequate but not exceptional; capable; suitable or sufficient for the purpose; having the necessary ability, knowledge or skill to do something successfully; efficient and capable (of a person); acceptable and satisfactory, though not outstanding

###### Competently

view_agenda book_2In an efficient and capable way; in an acceptable and satisfactory, though not outstanding, way

###### Complete Graph

view_agenda book_2A simple graph in which every vertex is joined to every other vertex by an edge; a complete graph with \(n\) vertices is denoted \(K_n\)

###### Complex

view_agenda book_2Composed or consisting of many different and interconnected parts or factors; compound; composite; characterized by an involved combination of parts; complicated; intricate; a complex whole or system; a complicated assembly of particulars

###### Complex familiar

view_agenda book_2Problems of this degree of difficulty require students to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the subject matter and application of skills in a situation where: relationships and interactions have a number of elements, such that connections are made with subject matter within and/or across the domains of mathematics; and all of the information to solve the problem is identifiable; that is the required procedure is clear from the way the problem is posed, or in a context that has been a focus of prior learning. Some interpretation, clarification and analysis will be required to develop responses. These problems can focus on any of the objectives

###### Complex unfamiliar

view_agenda book_2Problems of this degree of difficulty require students to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the subject matter and application of skills in a situation where: relationships and interactions have a number of elements, such that connections are made with subject matter within and/or across the domains of mathematics; and all the information to solve the problem is not immediately identifiable; that is the required procedure is not clear from the way the problem is posed, and in a context in which students have had limited prior experience. Students interpret, clarify and analyse problems to develop responses. Typically, these problems focus on objectives 4, 5 and 6.

###### Compound interest

view_agenda book_2The interest earned when each successive interest payment is added to the principal for the purpose of calculating the next interest payment, e.g. if the principal \( P \) earns compound interest \( A \) at the rate of \( i\% \) per period, then after \( n \) periods the total amount accrued is \( A = P(1 + i)^n \). When plotted on a graph, the total amount accrued is shown to grow exponentially

###### Comprehend

view_agenda book_2Understand the meaning or nature of; grasp mentally

###### Comprehensive

view_agenda book_2Inclusive; of large content or scope; including or dealing with all or nearly all elements or aspects of something; wide-ranging; detailed and thorough, including all that is relevant

###### Concise

view_agenda book_2Expressing much in few words; giving a lot of information clearly and in a few words; brief, comprehensive and to the point; succinct, clear, without repetition of information

###### Concisely

view_agenda book_2In a way that is brief but comprehensive; expressing much in few words; clearly and succinctly

###### Conduct

view_agenda book_2Direct in action or course; manage; organise; carry out

###### Connected Graph

view_agenda book_2A graph is connected if there is a path between each pair of vertices

###### Consider

view_agenda book_2Think deliberately or carefully about something, typically before making a decision; take something into account when making a judgment; view attentively or scrutinise; reflect on

###### Considerable

view_agenda book_2Fairly large or great; thought about deliberately and with a purpose

###### Considered

view_agenda book_2Formed after careful and deliberate thought

###### Consistent

view_agenda book_2Agreeing or accordant; compatible; not self-opposed or self-contradictory, constantly adhering to the same principles; acting in the same way over time, especially so as to be fair or accurate; unchanging in nature, standard, or effect over time; not containing any logical contradictions (of an argument); constant in achievement or effect over a period of time

###### Construct

view_agenda book_2Create or put together (e.g. an argument) by arranging ideas or items; display information in a diagrammatic or logical form; make; build

###### Continuous Variable

view_agenda book_2A numerical variable that can take any value that lies within an interval, e.g. height or reaction time

###### Contrast

view_agenda book_2Display recognition of differences by deliberate juxtaposition of contrary elements; show how things are different or opposite; give an account of the differences between two or more items or situations, referring to both or all of them throughout

###### Controlled

view_agenda book_2Shows the exercise of restraint or direction over; held in check; restrained, managed or kept within certain bounds

###### Convention

view_agenda book_2The generally agreed upon way in which something is done; in a mathematical context this refers to notation symbols, abbreviations, usage and setting out

###### Convincing

view_agenda book_2Persuaded by argument or proof; leaving no margin of doubt; clear; capable of causing someone to believe that something is true or real; persuading or assuring by argument or evidence; appearing worthy of belief; credible or plausible

###### Coordinated Universal Time

view_agenda book_2UTC; a system of time measurement used to regulate time and clocks around the world, based on International Atomic Time with leap seconds added at irregular intervals to compensate for the earth's slowing rotation; except in highly technical situations, regarded as equivalent to Greenwich Mean Time; initiated in 1961 and adopted internationally in 1972

###### Correlation Coefficient

view_agenda book_2The correlation coefficient (\(r\)) is a measure of the strength of the linear relationship between a pair of variables; for variables \( x \) and \( y \), and computed for \( n \) cases, the formula for \( r \) is \( r = \frac{1}{n-1} \sum (\frac{x_i - \bar{x}}{s_x})(\frac{y_i - \bar{y}}{s_y}) \)

###### Cosine Rule

view_agenda book_2For a triangle of side lengths \(a\), \(b\), and \(c\), and corresponding angles \(A\), \(B\), and \(C\), the cosine rule states that \(c^2 = a^2 + b^2 − 2ab \cos C\)

###### Course

view_agenda book_2A defined amount of learning developed from a subject syllabus

###### Create

view_agenda book_2Bring something into being or existence; produce or evolve from one's own thought or imagination; reorganise or put elements together into a new pattern or structure or to form a coherent or functional whole

###### Creative

view_agenda book_2Resulting from originality of thought or expression; relating to or involving the use of the imagination or original ideas to create something; having good imagination or original ideas

###### Credible

view_agenda book_2Capable or worthy of being believed; believable; convincing

###### Criterion

view_agenda book_2The property or characteristic by which something is judged or appraised

###### Critical

view_agenda book_2Involving skilful judgment as to truth, merit, etc.; involving the objective analysis and evaluation of an issue in order to form a judgment; expressing or involving an analysis of the merits and faults of a work of literature, music, or art; incorporating a detailed and scholarly analysis and commentary (of a text); rationally appraising for logical consistency and merit

###### Critical Path Analysis

view_agenda book_2A project often involves many related activities, some of which cannot be started until one or more earlier tasks have been completed, one way of scheduling such activities that takes this into account is to construct a network diagram

###### Critique

view_agenda book_2Review (e.g. a theory, practice, performance) in a detailed, analytical and critical way

###### Cursory

view_agenda book_2Hasty, and therefore not thorough or detailed; performed with little attention to detail; going rapidly over something, without noticing details; hasty; superficial

###### Decide

view_agenda book_2Reach a resolution as a result of consideration; make a choice from a number of alternatives

###### Deduce

view_agenda book_2Reach a conclusion that is necessarily true, provided a given set of assumptions is true; arrive at, reach or draw a logical conclusion from reasoning and the information given

###### Defensible

view_agenda book_2Justifiable by argument; capable of being defended in argument

###### Define

view_agenda book_2Give the meaning of a word, phrase, concept or physical quantity; state meaning and identify or describe qualities

###### Degree of a Vertex

view_agenda book_2In a graph, the degree of a vertex is the number of edges incident with the vertex, with loops counted twice

###### Demonstrate

view_agenda book_2Prove or make clear by argument, reasoning or evidence, illustrating with practical example; show by example; give a practical exhibition

###### Derive

view_agenda book_2Arrive at by reasoning; manipulate a mathematical relationship to give a new equation or relationship; in mathematics, obtain the derivative of a function

###### Describe

view_agenda book_2Give an account (written or spoken) of a situation, event, pattern or process, or of the characteristics or features of something

###### Design

view_agenda book_2Produce a plan, simulation, model or similar; plan, form or conceive in the mind; In English, select, organise and use particular elements in the process of text construction for particular purposes; these elements may be linguistic (words), visual (images), audio (sounds), gestural (body language), spatial (arrangement on the page or screen) and multimodal (a combination of more than one)

###### Detailed

view_agenda book_2Executed with great attention to the fine points; meticulous; including many of the parts or facts

###### Determine

view_agenda book_2Establish, conclude or ascertain after consideration, observation, investigation or calculation; decide or come to a resolution

###### Develop

view_agenda book_2Elaborate, expand or enlarge in detail; add detail and fullness to; cause to become more complex or intricate

###### Devise

view_agenda book_2Think out; plan; contrive; invent

###### Differentiate

view_agenda book_2Identify the difference/s in or between two or more things; distinguish, discriminate; recognise or ascertain what makes something distinct from similar things; In mathematics, obtain the derivative of a function

###### Directed Graph

view_agenda book_2A diagram comprising points, called vertices, joined by directed lines called arcs; directed graphs are commonly called digraphs

###### Discerning

view_agenda book_2Discriminating; showing intellectual perception; showing good judgment; making thoughtful and astute choices; selected for value or relevance

###### Discrete Variable

view_agenda book_2A numerical variable that can take only certain values, e.g. number of people in a car, shoe size

###### Discriminate

view_agenda book_2Note, observe or recognise a difference; make or constitute a distinction in or between; differentiate; note or distinguish as different

###### Discriminating

view_agenda book_2Differentiating; distinctive; perceiving differences or distinctions with nicety; possessing discrimination; perceptive and judicious; making judgments about quality; having or showing refined taste or good judgment

###### Discuss

view_agenda book_2Examine by argument; sift the considerations for and against; debate; talk or write about a topic, including a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses; consider, taking into account different issues and ideas, points for and/or against, and supporting opinions or conclusions with evidence

###### Disjointed

view_agenda book_2Disconnected; incoherent; lacking a coherent order/sequence or connection

###### Distinguish

view_agenda book_2Recognise as distinct or different; note points of difference between; discriminate; discern; make clear a difference/s between two or more concepts or items

###### Diverse

view_agenda book_2Of various kinds or forms; different from each other

###### Document

view_agenda book_2Support (e.g. an assertion, claim, statement) with evidence (e.g. decisive information, written references, citations)

###### Draw conclusions

view_agenda book_2Make a judgment based on reasoning and evidence

###### Earliest starting time

view_agenda book_2Using a forward scan of a network diagram to determine the earliest time an activity can begin

###### Effective

view_agenda book_2Successful in producing the intended, desired or expected result; meeting the assigned purpose

###### Effective annual rate of interest

view_agenda book_2The effective annual rate of interest \(\textit{i}_{effective}\) is used to compare the interest paid on loans (or investments) with the same nominal annual interest rate i but with different compounding periods (daily, monthly, quarterly, annually, other); if the number of compounding periods per annum is n, then \(\textit{i}_{effective} = (1 + \frac{i}{n})^n - 1\)

###### Efficient

view_agenda book_2Working in a well-organised and competent way; maximizing productivity with minimal expenditure of effort; acting or producing effectively with a minimum of waste, expense or unnecessary effort

###### Element

view_agenda book_2A component or constituent part of a complex whole; a fundamental, essential or irreducible part of a composite entity

###### Elementary

view_agenda book_2Simple or uncompounded; relating to or dealing with elements, rudiments or first principles (of a subject); of the most basic kind; straightforward and uncomplicated

###### Erroneous

view_agenda book_2Based on or containing error; mistaken; incorrect

###### Essential

view_agenda book_2Absolutely necessary; indispensable; of critical importance for achieving something

###### Eulerian graph

view_agenda book_2A connected graph is Eulerian if it has a closed trail (starts and ends at the same vertex), that is, includes every edge once only, such a trail is called a Eulerian trail; a Eulerian trail may include repeated vertices; a connected graph is semi-Eulerian if there is an open trail that includes every edge once only

###### Euler’s formula

view_agenda book_2For a connected planar graph, Euler's rule states that \(v + f - e = 2\) where \(v =\) number of vertices, \(e =\) number of edges and \(f =\) number of faces

###### Evaluate

view_agenda book_2Make an appraisal by weighing up or assessing strengths, implications and limitations; make judgments about ideas, works, solutions or methods in relation to selected criteria; examine and determine the merit, value or significance of something, based on criteria

###### Examination

view_agenda book_2A supervised test that assesses the application of a range of cognitions to one or more provided items such as questions, scenarios and/or problems; student responses are completed individually, under supervised conditions, and in a set timeframe

###### Examine

view_agenda book_2Investigate, inspect or scrutinise; inquire or search into; consider or discuss an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue

###### Experiment

view_agenda book_2Try out or test new ideas or methods, especially in order to discover or prove something; undertake or perform a scientific procedure to test a hypothesis, make a discovery or demonstrate a known fact

###### Explain

view_agenda book_2Make an idea or situation plain or clear by describing it in more detail or revealing relevant facts; give an account; provide additional information

###### Explanatory Variable

view_agenda book_2When investigating relationships in bivariate data, the explanatory variable (independent variable) is the variable used to explain or predict a difference in the response variable (dependent variable), e.g. when investigating the relationship between the temperature of a loaf of bread and the time it has spent in a hot oven, temperature is the response variable and time is the explanatory variable

###### Explicit

view_agenda book_2Clearly and distinctly expressing all that is meant; unequivocal; clearly developed or formulated; leaving nothing merely implied or suggested

###### Explore

view_agenda book_2Look into both closely and broadly; scrutinise; inquire into or discuss something in detail

###### Express

view_agenda book_2Convey, show or communicate (e.g. a thought, opinion, feeling, emotion, idea or viewpoint); in words, art, music or movement, convey or suggest a representation of; depict

###### Extended Response

view_agenda book_2An open-ended assessment technique that focuses on the interpretation, analysis, examination and/or evaluation of ideas and information in response to a particular situation or stimulus; while students may undertake some research when writing of the extended response, it is not the focus of this technique; an extended response occurs over an extended and defined period of time

###### Extension Subject

view_agenda book_2A two-unit subject (Units 3 and 4) for which a syllabus has been developed by QCAA, that is an extension of one or more General subject/s, studied concurrently with, Units 3 and 4 of that subject or after completion of, Units 3 and 4 of that subject

###### Extensive

view_agenda book_2Of great extent; wide; broad; far-reaching; comprehensive; lengthy; detailed; large in amount or scale

###### External Assessment

view_agenda book_2Summative assessment that occurs towards the end of a course of study and is common to all schools; developed and marked by the QCAA according to a commonly applied marking scheme

###### External Examination

view_agenda book_2A supervised test, developed and marked by the QCAA, that assesses the application of a range of cognitions to multiple provided items such as questions, scenarios and/or problems; student responses are completed individually, under supervised conditions, and in a set timeframe

###### Extrapolate

view_agenda book_2Infer or estimate by extending or projecting known information; conjecture; infer from what is known; extend the application of something (e.g. a method or conclusion) to an unknown situation by assuming that existing trends will continue or similar methods will be applicable

###### Face

view_agenda book_2The faces of a planar graph are the regions bounded by the edges including the outer infinitely large region

###### Factual

view_agenda book_2Relating to or based on facts; concerned with what is actually the case; actually occurring; having verified existence

###### Familiar

view_agenda book_2Well-acquainted; thoroughly conversant with; well known from long or close association; often encountered or experienced; common; (of materials, texts, skills or circumstances) having been the focus of learning experiences or previously encountered in prior learning activities

###### Feasible

view_agenda book_2Capable of being achieved, accomplished or put into effect; reasonable enough to be believed or accepted; probable; likely

###### Float Time

view_agenda book_2The amount of time that a task in a project network can be delayed without causing a delay to subsequent tasks; also called slack time

###### Flow Network

view_agenda book_2A directed graph where each edge has a capacity and each edge receives a flow, the amount of flow on an edge cannot exceed the capacity of the edge; a flow must satisfy the restriction that the amount of flow into a node equals the amount of flow out of it, except when it is a source, which has more outgoing flow, or a sink, which has more incoming flow

###### Fluent

view_agenda book_2Spoken or written with ease; able to speak or write smoothly, easily or readily; articulate; eloquent; in artistic performance, characteristic of a highly developed and excellently controlled technique; flowing; polished; flowing smoothly, easily and effortlessly

###### Fluently

view_agenda book_2In a graceful and seemingly effortless manner; in a way that progresses smoothly and readily

###### Formative Assessment

view_agenda book_2Assessment whose major purpose is to improve teaching and student achievement

###### Fragmented

view_agenda book_2Disorganised; broken down; disjointed or isolated

###### Frequent

view_agenda book_2Happening or occurring often at short intervals; constant, habitual, or regular

###### Fundamental

view_agenda book_2Forming a necessary base or core; of central importance; affecting or relating to the essential nature of something; part of a foundation or basis

###### GMT

view_agenda book_2Greenwich Mean Time, the mean solar time of the meridian through Greenwich, England, widely used throughout the world (from 1884 to 1972) as a basis for calculating local time; equivalent to UTC

###### GPS

view_agenda book_2Global positioning system, a navigational system that relies on information received from a network of satellites to provide the latitude and longitude of an object

###### GST

view_agenda book_2Goods and services tax, a broad sales tax of 10% on most goods and services transactions in Australia

###### General subject

view_agenda book_2A subject for which a syllabus has been developed by the QCAA with the following characteristics: results from courses developed from General syllabuses contribute to the QCE; General subjects have an external assessment component; results may contribute to ATAR calculations

###### Generate

view_agenda book_2Produce; create; bring into existence

###### Geometric growth or decay

view_agenda book_2A sequence displays geometric growth or decay when each term is some constant multiple (greater or less than one) of the preceding term: a multiple greater than one corresponds to growth, a multiple less than one corresponds to decay, e.g. 1, 2, 4, ... displays geometric growth because each term is double the previous term, 100, 10, 0.1, ... displays geometric decay because each term is one tenth of the previous term

###### Geometric sequence

view_agenda book_2A sequence of numbers where each term after the first is found by multiplying the previous term by a fixed non-zero number (excluding ±1) called the common ratio, e.g., 2, 6, 18, ... is a geometric sequence with first term 2 and common ratio 3; by inspection of the sequence, the rule for the \(n^{th}\) term of this sequence is \(t_n = 2 \times 3^{(n-1)}, n \geq 1\); if \(t_n\) is used to denote the \(n^{th}\) term in the sequence, then a recursion relation that will generate this sequence is \(t_{n+1} = 2t_n, t_1 = 2, n \geq 1\)

###### Global positioning system

view_agenda book_2GPS; a navigational system that relies on information received from a network of satellites to provide the latitude and longitude of an object

###### Goods and services tax

view_agenda book_2GST; a broad sales tax of 10% on most goods and services transactions in Australia

###### Great circle

view_agenda book_2In earth geometry, a circle that cuts through the centre of the Earth; a circle that has a radius the same as the earth, e.g. the equator and the meridians of longitude

###### Greenwich Mean Time

view_agenda book_2GMT; the mean solar time of the meridian through Greenwich, England, widely used throughout the world (from 1884 to 1972) as a basis for calculating local time; equivalent to UTC

###### Hamiltonian graph

view_agenda book_2A network diagram that begins and ends at the same vertex and connects every vertex only once

###### Heron's rule

view_agenda book_2A rule for determining the area of a triangle given the lengths of its sides: the area \( A \) of a triangle of side lengths \( a, b \) and \( c \) is given by \( A = \sqrt{s(s - a)(s - b)(s - c)} \), where \( s = \frac{a + b + c}{2} \)

###### Hypothesise

view_agenda book_2Formulate a supposition to account for known facts or observed occurrences; conjecture, theorise, speculate; especially on uncertain or tentative grounds

###### ISMG

view_agenda book_2Instrument-specific marking guide; a tool for marking that describes the characteristics evident in student responses and aligns with the identified objectives for the assessment (see assessment objectives)

###### Identify

view_agenda book_2Distinguish; locate, recognise and name; establish or indicate who or what someone or something is; provide an answer from a number of possibilities; recognise and state a distinguishing factor or feature

###### Identity matrix

view_agenda book_2A square matrix in which all of the elements in the leading diagonal are 1s and the remaining elements are 0s; identity matrices are designated by the letter \( I \) e.g. \( I_3 = \left[ \begin{array}{ccc} 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \end{array} \right] \) there is an identity matrix for each size (or order) of a square matrix

###### Illogical

view_agenda book_2Lacking sense or sound reasoning; contrary to or disregardful of the rules of logic; unreasonable

###### Implement

view_agenda book_2Put something into effect, e.g. a plan or proposal

###### Implicit

view_agenda book_2Implied, rather than expressly stated; not plainly expressed; capable of being inferred from something else

###### Improbable

view_agenda book_2Not probable; unlikely to be true or to happen; not easy to believe

###### In-depth

view_agenda book_2Comprehensive and with thorough coverage; extensive or profound; well-balanced or fully developed

###### Inaccurate

view_agenda book_2Not accurate

###### Inappropriate

view_agenda book_2Not suitable or proper in the circumstances

###### Inconsistent

view_agenda book_2Lacking agreement, as one thing with another, or two or more things in relation to each other; at variance; not consistent; not in keeping; not in accordance; incompatible, incongruous

###### Independent

view_agenda book_2Thinking or acting for oneself, not influenced by others

###### Infer

view_agenda book_2Derive or conclude something from evidence and reasoning, rather than from explicit statements; listen or read beyond what has been literally expressed; imply or hint at

###### Informed

view_agenda book_2Knowledgeable; learned; having relevant knowledge; being conversant with the topic; based on an understanding of the facts of the situation (of a decision or judgment)

###### Innovative

view_agenda book_2New and original; introducing new ideas; original and creative in thinking

###### Insightful

view_agenda book_2Showing understanding of a situation or process; understanding relationships in complex situations; informed by observation and deduction

###### Instrument-specific marking guide

view_agenda book_2ISMG; a tool for marking that describes the characteristics evident in student responses and aligns with the identified objectives for the assessment (see 'assessment objectives')

###### Integral

view_agenda book_2Adjective; necessary for the completeness of the whole; essential or fundamental; noun; in mathematics, the result of integration; an expression from which a given function, equation, or system of equations is derived by differentiation

###### Intended

view_agenda book_2Designed; meant; done on purpose; intentional

###### Internal assessment

view_agenda book_2Assessments that are developed by schools; summative internal assessments are endorsed by the QCAA before use in schools and results externally confirmed contribute towards a student's final result

###### International Date Line

view_agenda book_2A line, theoretically coinciding with the meridian of 180° from Greenwich, England, the regions on either side of which are counted as differing by one day in their calendar dates

###### Interpolation

view_agenda book_2In the context of fitting a linear relationship between two variables, interpolation occurs when the fitted model is used to make predictions using values of the explanatory variable that lie within the range of the original data

###### Interpret

view_agenda book_2Use knowledge and understanding to recognise trends and draw conclusions from given information; make clear or explicit; elucidate or understand in a particular way; bring out the meaning of, e.g. a dramatic or musical work, by performance or execution; bring out the meaning of an artwork by artistic representation or performance; give one's own interpretation of; identify or draw meaning from, or give meaning to, information presented in various forms, such as words, symbols, pictures or graphs

###### Interquartile Range

view_agenda book_2A measure of the spread within a numerical dataset; it is equal to the upper quartile (\(Q_3\)) minus the lower quartile (\(Q_1\)), that is, \(IQR = Q_3 - Q_1\); \(Q_1\) is the median of the lower half of the data (excluding the median, \(Q_2\), of the dataset); \(Q_3\) is the median of the upper half of the data (excluding the median, \(Q_2\), of the dataset) hence \(IQR\) is the width of an interval that contains the middle 50% (approximately) of the data values; to be exactly 50%, the sample size must be a multiple of four

###### Investigate

view_agenda book_2Carry out an examination or formal inquiry in order to establish or obtain facts and reach new conclusions; search, inquire into, interpret and draw conclusions about data and information

###### Investigation

view_agenda book_2An assessment technique that requires students to research a specific problem, question, issue, design challenge or hypothesis through the collection, analysis and synthesis of primary and/or secondary data; it uses research or investigative practices to assess a range of cognitions in a particular context; an investigation occurs over an extended and defined period of time

###### Irrelevant

view_agenda book_2Not relevant; not applicable or pertinent; not connected with or relevant to something

###### Isolated

view_agenda book_2Detached, separate, or unconnected with other things; one-off; something set apart or characterised as different in some way

###### Judge

view_agenda book_2Form an opinion or conclusion about; apply both procedural and deliberative operations to make a determination

###### Justified

view_agenda book_2Sound reasons or evidence are provided to support an argument, statement or conclusion

###### Justify

view_agenda book_2Give reasons or evidence to support an answer, response or conclusion; show or prove how an argument, statement or conclusion is right or reasonable

###### Latitude

view_agenda book_2The angular distance north or south from the equator of a point on the Earth's surface, usually measured in degrees, minutes and seconds, e.g., Canberra has a latitude of 35°17'S

###### Learning Area

view_agenda book_2A grouping of subjects, with related characteristics, within a broad field of learning, e.g. the Arts, sciences, languages

###### Least-squares Line

view_agenda book_2The line of best fit for which the sum of the squared residuals is the smallest; the general form of this line is: \( y = a + bx \) where the slope of the line is \( b = \frac{\sum(x_{i} - \overline{x})(y_{i} - \overline{y})}{\sum(x_{i} - \overline{x})^2} = \frac{S_{xy}}{S_{x}} \) and the y-intercept is \( a = \overline{y} - b\overline{x} \)

###### Least-squares Method

view_agenda book_2In fitting a straight line \( y = a + bx \) to the relationship between a response variable \( y \) and an explanatory variable \( x \), the least-squares line is the line for which the sum of the squared residuals is the smallest

###### Length

view_agenda book_2In graphs and networks, the length of a walk is the number of edges it includes

###### Linear Equation

view_agenda book_2A linear equation in one variable \( x \) is an equation of the form \( ax + b = 0 \), e.g. \( 3x + 1 = 0 \); a linear equation in two variables \( x \) and \( y \) is an equation of the form \( ax + by + c = 0 \), e.g. \( 2x - 3y + 5 = 0 \)

###### Linear Graph

view_agenda book_2A graph of a linear equation with two variables; if the linear equation is written in the form \( y = a + bx \), then a represents the y-intercept and \( b \) represents the slope (or gradient) of the linear graph

###### Linear Growth or Decay

view_agenda book_2A sequence displays linear growth or decay when the difference between successive terms is constant; a positive constant difference corresponds to linear growth while a negative constant difference corresponds to decay e.g. the sequence, 1, 4, 7, ... displays linear growth because the difference between successive terms is 3; the sequence, 100, 90, 80, ... displays linear decay because the difference between successive terms is -10; by definition, arithmetic sequences display linear growth or decay

###### Logical

view_agenda book_2Rational and valid; internally consistent; reasonable; reasoning in accordance with the principles/rules of logic or formal argument; characterised by or capable of clear, sound reasoning; (of an action, decision, etc.) expected or sensible under the circumstances

###### Logically

view_agenda book_2According to the rules of logic or formal argument; in a way that shows clear, sound reasoning; in a way that is expected or sensible

###### Longitude

view_agenda book_2Angular distance east or west on the Earth's surface, measured along the equator by the angle contained between the meridian of a particular place and the prime meridian, usually in degrees, minutes and seconds, e.g. Canberra has a longitude of 149°08' E

###### Make Decisions

view_agenda book_2Select from available options; weigh up positives and negatives of each option and consider all the alternatives to arrive at a position

###### Manipulate

view_agenda book_2Adapt or change to suit one

###### Mathematical Model

view_agenda book_2A depiction of a situation that expresses relationships using mathematical concepts and language, usually as an algebraic, diagrammatic, graphical or tabular representation

###### Mathematical Modelling

view_agenda book_2Involves: formulating a mathematical representation of a problem derived from within a real-world context; using mathematics concepts and techniques to obtain results; interpreting the results by referring back to the original problem context; revising the model (where necessary)

###### Matrix

view_agenda book_2A rectangular array of elements or entities, usually numbers, displayed in rows and columns

###### Matrix Addition

view_agenda book_2If \( A \) and \( B \) are matrices of the same size (order) and the elements of \( A \) are \( a_{ij} \) and the elements of \( B \) are \( b_{ij} \), then the elements of \( A + B \) are \( a_{ij} + b_{ij} \) e.g. \(\begin{bmatrix} 2 & 1 \\ 4 & 0 \end{bmatrix} + \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 3 \\ -3 & 10 \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} 5 & -2 \\ 1 & 10 \end{bmatrix}\)

###### Matrix Multiplication

view_agenda book_2The process of multiplying a matrix by another matrix

###### Mean

view_agenda book_2The arithmetic mean, \( \bar{x} \), of a list of numbers is the sum of the data values divided by the number of values in the list

###### Median

view_agenda book_2The median is the value in an ordered set of data values that divides the data into two parts of equal size; when there are an odd number of data values, the median is the middle value; when there are an even number of data values, the median is the mean of the two central values

###### Mental Procedures

view_agenda book_2A domain of knowledge in Marzano's taxonomy, and acted upon by the cognitive, metacognitive and self-systems; sometimes referred to as

###### Meridian

view_agenda book_2The half of a great circle of the Earth ending at the poles, used in measuring east–west position

###### Methodical

view_agenda book_2Performed, disposed or acting in a systematic way; orderly; characterised by method or order; performed or carried out systematically

###### Minimal

view_agenda book_2Least possible; small, the least amount; negligible

###### Minimum Spanning Tree

view_agenda book_2For a given connected weighted graph, the edges that connect all vertices together with the minimum total edge

###### Mode

view_agenda book_2In mathematics, the most frequently occurring value in a dataset; a dataset can have more than one mode

###### Modify

view_agenda book_2Change the form or qualities of; make partial or minor changes to something

###### Moving Average

view_agenda book_2A process that reduces the effect of non-typical data and makes the overall trend easier to see; in a time series, a simple moving average is a method used to smooth the time series by replacing each observation with a simple average of the observation and its near neighbours

###### Multimodal

view_agenda book_2Uses a combination of at least two modes (e.g., spoken, written), delivered at the same time, to communicate ideas and information to a live or virtual audience, for a particular purpose; the selected modes are integrated so that each mode contributes significantly to the response

###### Narrow

view_agenda book_2Limited in range or scope; lacking breadth of view; limited in amount; barely sufficient or adequate; restricted

###### Network Diagram

view_agenda book_2A set of points, called vertices, that are joined by a set of lines called edges; each edge joins two vertices

###### Nuanced

view_agenda book_2Showing a subtle difference or distinction in expression, meaning, response, etc.; finely differentiated; characterised by subtle shades of meaning or expression; a subtle distinction, variation or quality; sensibility to, awareness of, or ability to express delicate shadings, as of meaning, feeling, or value

###### Objectives

view_agenda book_2See syllabus objectives, unit objectives, assessment objectives

###### Observation

view_agenda book_2Data or information required to solve a mathematical problem and/or develop a mathematical model; empirical evidence

###### Obvious

view_agenda book_2Clearly perceptible or evident; easily seen, recognised or understood

###### Optimal

view_agenda book_2Best, most favourable, under a particular set of circumstances

###### Organise

view_agenda book_2Arrange, order; form as or into a whole consisting of interdependent or coordinated parts, especially for harmonious or united action

###### Organised

view_agenda book_2Systematically ordered and arranged; having a formal organisational structure to arrange, coordinate and carry out activities

###### Outlier

view_agenda book_2An outlier in a set of data is an observation that appears to be inconsistent with the other data

###### Outstanding

view_agenda book_2Exceptionally good; clearly noticeable; prominent; conspicuous; striking

###### Partial

view_agenda book_2Not total or general; existing only in part; attempted, but incomplete

###### Particular

view_agenda book_2Distinguished or different from others or from the ordinary; noteworthy

###### Path

view_agenda book_2In a graph, a walk in which all the edges and all the vertices are different; a path that starts and finishes at different vertices is said to be open, while a path that starts and finishes at the same vertex is said to be closed; a cycle is a closed path

###### Perceptive

view_agenda book_2Having or showing insight and the ability to perceive or understand; discerning (see also

###### Performance

view_agenda book_2An assessment technique that requires students to demonstrate a range of cognitive, technical, creative and/or expressive skills and to apply theoretical and conceptual understandings, through the psychomotor domain; it involves student application of identified skills when responding to a task that involves solving a problem, providing a solution or conveying meaning or intent; a performance is developed over an extended and defined period of time

###### Persuasive

view_agenda book_2Capable of changing someone's ideas, opinions or beliefs; appearing worthy of approval or acceptance; (of an argument or statement) communicating reasonably or credibly (see also

###### Perusal time

view_agenda book_2Time allocated in an assessment to reading items and tasks and associated assessment materials; no writing is allowed; students may not make notes and may not commence responding to the assessment in the response space/book

###### Piece-wise linear graph

view_agenda book_2A graph consisting of one or more overlapping line segments, sometimes called a line segment graph

###### Planar graph

view_agenda book_2A graph that can be drawn in the plane; a planar graph can always be drawn so that no two edges cross

###### Planning time

view_agenda book_2Time allocated in an assessment to planning how to respond to items and tasks and associated assessment materials; students may make notes but may not commence responding to the assessment in the response space/book; notes made during planning are not collected, nor are they graded or used as evidence of achievement

###### Polished

view_agenda book_2Flawless or excellent; performed with skilful ease

###### Polynomial

view_agenda book_2An expression consisting of the sum of two or more terms, each of which is the product of a constant and a variable raised to an integral power: \(ax^2 + bx + c\) is a polynomial, where \(a\), \(b\), and \(c\) are constants and \(x\) is a variable

###### Precise

view_agenda book_2Definite or exact; definitely or strictly stated, defined or fixed; characterised by definite or exact expression or execution

###### Precision

view_agenda book_2Accuracy; exactness; exact observance of forms in conduct or actions

###### Predict

view_agenda book_2Give an expected result of an upcoming action or event; suggest what may happen based on available information

###### Price-to-earnings ratio

view_agenda book_2The price to earnings ratio of a share (P/E ratio) is defined as: \( \frac{\text{market price per share}}{\text{annual earnings per share}} \)

###### Prime meridian

view_agenda book_2The meridian from which longitude east and west is reckoned, usually that of Greenwich, England

###### Prim’s algorithm

view_agenda book_2An algorithm for determining a minimum spanning tree in a connected weighted graph

###### Procedural vocabulary

view_agenda book_2Instructional terms used in a mathematical context (e.g. calculate, convert, determine, identify, justify, show, sketch, solve, state)

###### Product

view_agenda book_2An assessment technique that focuses on the output or result of a process requiring the application of a range of cognitive, physical, technical, creative and/or expressive skills, and theoretical and conceptual understandings; a product is developed over an extended and defined period of time

###### Proficient

view_agenda book_2Well advanced or expert in any art, science or subject; competent, skilled or adept in doing or using something

###### Project

view_agenda book_2An assessment technique that focuses on a problem-solving process requiring the application of a range of cognitive, technical and creative skills and theoretical understandings; the response is a coherent work that documents the iterative process undertaken to develop a solution and includes written paragraphs and annotations, diagrams, sketches, drawings, photographs, video, spoken presentations, physical prototypes and/or models; a project is developed over an extended and defined period of time

###### Propose

view_agenda book_2Put forward (e.g. a point of view, idea, argument, suggestion) for consideration or action

###### Prove

view_agenda book_2Use a sequence of steps to obtain the required result in a formal way

###### Psychomotor procedures

view_agenda book_2A domain of knowledge in Marzano's taxonomy, and acted upon by the cognitive, metacognitive and self-systems; these are physical procedures used to negotiate daily life and to engage in complex physical activities; the two categories of psychomotor procedures are skills (foundational procedures and simple combination procedures) and processes (complex combination procedures)

###### Purposeful

view_agenda book_2Having an intended or desired result; having a useful purpose; determined; resolute; full of meaning; significant; intentional

###### Pythagoras’ theorem

view_agenda book_2The square of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle equals the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides; in symbols, \( a^2 + b^2 = c^2 \)

###### QCE

view_agenda book_2Queensland Certificate of Education

###### Qualitative statements

view_agenda book_2Statements relating to a quality or qualities; statements of a non-numerical nature

###### Quantitative analysis

view_agenda book_2Use of mathematical measurements and calculations, including statistics, to analyse the relationships between variables; may include use of the correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, simple residual analysis or outlier analysis

###### Queensland Certificate of Education

view_agenda book_2QCE

###### Realise

view_agenda book_2Create or make (e.g. a musical, artistic or dramatic work); actualise; make real or concrete; give reality or substance to

###### Reasonable

view_agenda book_2Endowed with reason; having sound judgment; fair and sensible; based on good sense; average; appropriate, moderate

###### Reasonableness of solutions

view_agenda book_2To justify solutions obtained with or without technology using everyday language, mathematical language or a combination of both; may be applied to calculations to check working, or to questions that require a relationship back to the context

###### Reasoned

view_agenda book_2Logical and sound; based on logic or good sense; logically thought out and presented with justification; guided by reason; well-grounded; considered

###### Recall

view_agenda book_2Remember; present remembered ideas, facts or experiences; bring something back into thought, attention or into one's mind

###### Recognise

view_agenda book_2Identify or recall particular features of information from knowledge; identify that an item, characteristic or quality exists; perceive as existing or true; be aware of or acknowledge

###### Recurrence relation

view_agenda book_2An equation that recursively defines a sequence, that is, once one or more initial terms are given, each further term of the sequence is defined as a function of the preceding terms

###### Reducing balance loan

view_agenda book_2A type of compound interest loan where the loan is repaid in regular payments and the interest paid is calculated on the amount still owing (the reducing balance of the loan) after each payment is made

###### Refined

view_agenda book_2Developed or improved so as to be precise, exact or subtle

###### Reflect on

view_agenda book_2Think about deeply and carefully

###### Rehearsed

view_agenda book_2Practised; previously experienced; practised extensively

###### Related

view_agenda book_2Associated with or linked to

###### Relevance

view_agenda book_2Being related to the matter at hand

###### Relevant

view_agenda book_2Bearing upon or connected with the matter in hand; to the purpose; applicable and pertinent; having a direct bearing on

###### Repetitive

view_agenda book_2Containing or characterised by repetition, especially when unnecessary or tiresome

###### Reporting

view_agenda book_2Providing information that succinctly describes student performance at different junctures throughout a course of study

###### Representatively sample

view_agenda book_2In this syllabus, a selection of subject matter that accurately reflects the intended learning of a topic

###### Resolve

view_agenda book_2In the Arts, consolidate and communicate intent through a synthesis of ideas and application of media to express meaning

###### Response variable

view_agenda book_2Also known as the dependent variable; its value is dependent on the value of the explanatory (or independent) variable

###### Routine

view_agenda book_2Often encountered, previously experienced; commonplace; customary and regular; well-practised; performed as part of a regular procedure, rather than for a special reason

###### Row matrix

view_agenda book_2A matrix that has only one row

###### Rudimentary

view_agenda book_2Relating to rudiments or first principles; elementary; undeveloped; involving or limited to basic principles; relating to an immature, undeveloped or basic form

###### Safe

view_agenda book_2Secure; not risky

###### Scale factor

view_agenda book_2A number that scales, or multiplies, some quantity; in the equation \( y = kx \), \( k \) is the scale factor for \( x \); if two or more figures are similar, their sizes can be compared; the scale factor is the ratio of the length of one side on one figure to the length of the corresponding side on the other figure; a measure of magnification; the change of size

###### Scatterplot

view_agenda book_2A two-dimensional data plot using Cartesian co-ordinates to display the values of two variables in a bivariate dataset

###### Seasonal adjustment

view_agenda book_2Adjusting for seasonality; a term used to describe a time series from which periodic variations due to seasonal effects have been removed

###### Seasonal index

view_agenda book_2The seasonal index can be used to remove seasonality from data; an index value is attached to each period of the time series within a year; for the seasons of the year (summer, autumn, winter, spring) there are four separate seasonal indices; for months, there are 12 separate seasonal indices, one for each month, and so on; there are several methods for determining seasonal indices

###### Seasonal variation

view_agenda book_2A regular rise and fall in the time series that recurs each year; seasonal variation is measured in terms of a seasonal index

###### Secure

view_agenda book_2Sure; certain; able to be counted on; self-confident; poised; dependable; confident; assured; not liable to fail

###### Select

view_agenda book_2Choose in preference to another or others; pick out

###### Sensitive

view_agenda book_2Capable of perceiving with a sense or senses; aware of the attitudes, feelings or circumstances of others; having acute mental or emotional sensibility; relating to or connected with the senses or sensation

###### Sequence

view_agenda book_2Place in a continuous or connected series; arrange in a particular order

###### Show

view_agenda book_2Provide the relevant reasoning to support a response

###### Significant

view_agenda book_2Important; of consequence; expressing a meaning; indicative; includes all that is important; sufficiently great or important to be worthy of attention; noteworthy; having a particular meaning; indicative of something

###### Similar Figures

view_agenda book_2Two geometric figures are similar if they are of the same shape but not necessarily of the same size

###### Simple

view_agenda book_2Easy to understand, deal with and use; not complex or complicated; plain; not elaborate or artificial; may concern a single or basic aspect; involving few elements, components or steps

###### Simple Familiar

view_agenda book_2Problems of this degree of difficulty require students to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the subject matter and application of skills in a situation where: • relationships and interactions are obvious and have few elements; and • all of the information to solve the problem is identifiable; that is – the required procedure is clear from the way the problem is posed, or – in a context that has been a focus of prior learning. Students are not required to interpret, clarify and analyse problems to develop responses. Typically, these problems focus on objectives 1, 2 and 3.

###### Simple Graph

view_agenda book_2A simple graph has no loops or multiple edges

###### Simple Interest

view_agenda book_2Simple interest is the interest accumulated when the interest payment in each period is a fixed fraction of the principal, e.g. if the principle P earns simple interest at the rate of \(i\)% per period, then after \(n\) periods the accumulated simple interest is: \(I = Pin\). When plotted on a graph, the total amount accrued is shown to grow linearly

###### Simplistic

view_agenda book_2Characterised by extreme simplification, especially if misleading; oversimplified

###### Sine Rule

view_agenda book_2For a triangle of side lengths \(a\), \(b\) and \(c\) and angles \(A\), \(B\) and \(C\), the sine rule states that: \(\frac{a}{\sin A} = \frac{b}{\sin B} = \frac{c}{\sin C}\)

###### Size of the Matrix

view_agenda book_2Two matrices are said to have the same size (or order) if they have the same number of rows and columns, a matrix with \(m\) rows and \(n\) columns is an \(m \times n\) matrix

###### Sketch

view_agenda book_2Execute a drawing or painting in simple form, giving essential features but not necessarily with detail or accuracy; In mathematics, represent by means of a diagram or graph; the sketch should give a general idea of the required shape or relationship and should include features

###### Skilled

view_agenda book_2Having or showing the knowledge, ability or training to perform a certain activity or task well; having skill; trained or experienced; showing, involving or requiring skill

###### Skillful

view_agenda book_2Having technical facility or practical ability; possessing, showing, involving or requiring skill; expert, dexterous; demonstrating the knowledge, ability or training to perform a certain activity or task well; trained, practiced or experienced

###### Slope

view_agenda book_2The steepness, incline, or grade of a line; slope is normally described by the ratio of the

###### Solve

view_agenda book_2Find an answer to, explanation for, or means of dealing with (e.g. a problem); Work out the answer or solution to (e.g. a mathematical problem); Obtain the answer/s using algebraic, numerical and/or graphical methods

###### Sophisticated

view_agenda book_2Of intellectual complexity; reflecting a high degree of skill, intelligence, etc.; employing advanced or refined methods or concepts; highly developed or complicated

###### Specific

view_agenda book_2Clearly defined or identified; precise and clear in making statements or issuing instructions; having a special application or reference; explicit, or definite; peculiar or proper to something, as qualities, characteristics, effects, etc.

###### Sporadic

view_agenda book_2Happening now and again or at intervals; irregular or occasional; appearing in scattered or isolated instances

###### Square Matrix

view_agenda book_2A square matrix has the same number of rows and columns e.g. \(\begin{bmatrix} 4 & 0 \\ 7 & -2 \end{bmatrix}\)

###### Standard Deviation

view_agenda book_2A measure of the variability or spread of a dataset; it indicates the degree to which the individual data values are spread around their mean; The standard deviation of \(n\) observations \(x_1, x_2, ..., x_n\) is: \(s = \sqrt{\frac{\sum (x_i - \bar{x})^2}{n - 1}}\)

###### Statement

view_agenda book_2A sentence or assertion

###### Step Graph

view_agenda book_2A graph consisting of one or more non-overlapping horizontal line segments that follow a step-like pattern

###### Straightforward

view_agenda book_2Without difficulty; uncomplicated; direct; easy to do or understand

###### Structured

view_agenda book_2Organized or arranged so as to produce a desired result

###### Subject

view_agenda book_2A branch or area of knowledge or learning defined by a syllabus; school subjects are usually based in a discipline or field of study (see also 'course')

###### Subject matter

view_agenda book_2The subject-specific body of information, mental procedures and psychomotor procedures that are necessary for students' learning and engagement within that subject

###### Substantial

view_agenda book_2Of ample or considerable amount, quantity, size, etc.; of real worth or value; firmly or solidly established; of real significance; reliable; important, worthwhile

###### Substantiated

view_agenda book_2Established by proof or competent evidence

###### Subtle

view_agenda book_2Fine or delicate in meaning or intent; making use of indirect methods; not straightforward or obvious

###### Successful

view_agenda book_2Achieving or having achieved success; accomplishing a desired aim or result

###### Succinct

view_agenda book_2Expressed in few words; concise; terse; characterised by conciseness or brevity; brief and clear

###### Sufficient

view_agenda book_2Enough or adequate for the purpose

###### Suitable

view_agenda book_2Appropriate; fitting; conforming or agreeing in nature, condition, or action

###### Summarise

view_agenda book_2Give a brief statement of a general theme or major point/s; present ideas and information in fewer words and in sequence

###### Summative assessment

view_agenda book_2Assessment whose major purpose is to indicate student achievement; summative assessments contribute towards a student's subject result

###### Superficial

view_agenda book_2Concerned with or comprehending only what is on the surface or obvious; shallow; not profound, thorough, deep or complete; existing or occurring at or on the surface; cursory; lacking depth of character or understanding; apparent and sometimes trivial

###### Supported

view_agenda book_2Corroborated; given greater credibility by providing evidence

###### Sustained

view_agenda book_2Carried on continuously, without interruption, or without any diminishing of intensity or extent

###### Syllabus

view_agenda book_2A document that prescribes the curriculum for a course of study

###### Syllabus objectives

view_agenda book_2Outline what the school is required to teach and what students have the opportunity to learn; described in terms of actions that operate on the subject matter; the overarching objectives for a course of study (see also 'unit objectives', 'assessment objectives')

###### Symbolise

view_agenda book_2Represent or identify by a symbol or symbols

###### Synthesise

view_agenda book_2Combine different parts or elements (e.g. information, ideas, components) into a whole, in order to create new understanding

###### Systematic

view_agenda book_2Done or acting according to a fixed plan or system; methodical; organised and logical; having, showing, or involving a system, method, or plan; characterised by system or method; methodical; arranged in, or comprising an ordered system

###### Technical vocabulary

view_agenda book_2Terms that have a precise mathematical meaning (e.g. categorical data, chain rule, decimal fraction, imaginary number, log laws, linear regression, sine rule, whole number); may include everyday words used in a mathematical context (e.g. capacity, differentiate, evaluate, integrate, order, property, sample, union)

###### Test

view_agenda book_2Take measures to check the quality, performance or reliability of something

###### Thorough

view_agenda book_2Carried out through, or applied to the whole of something; carried out completely and carefully; including all that is required; complete with attention to every detail; not superficial or partial; performed or written with care and completeness; taking pains to do something carefully and completely

###### Thoughtful

view_agenda book_2Occupied with, or given to thought; contemplative; meditative; reflective; characterised by or manifesting thought

###### Time series

view_agenda book_2Values of a variable recorded, usually at regular intervals, over a period of time; the observed movement and fluctuations of many such series comprise long-term trend, seasonal variation, and irregular variation or noise

###### Time series plot

view_agenda book_2The graph of a time series with time plotted on the horizontal axis

###### Time zone

view_agenda book_2One of the 24 regions or divisions of the globe approximately coinciding with meridians at successive hours from the observatory at Greenwich

###### Topic

view_agenda book_2A division of, or sub-section within a unit; all topics/sub-topics within a unit are interrelated

###### Trail

view_agenda book_2In a graph, a trail is a walk in which no edge is repeated; a closed trail must start and finish at the same vertex, whereas an open trail does not

###### Transpose

view_agenda book_2To rearrange a formula, or equation, usually for the purpose of changing the subject of the formula

###### Tree

view_agenda book_2In a network, a connected graph with no cycles

###### Trend

view_agenda book_2In a time series, the general direction of the series (increasing/decreasing) over a long period of time

###### True Bearings

view_agenda book_2True (or three-figure) bearings are measured clockwise in degrees from the north line; three figures are used to specify the direction

###### Two-way Frequency Table

view_agenda book_2Used for displaying the two-way frequency distribution that arises when a group of individuals or objects are categorised according to two criteria

###### UTC

view_agenda book_2Coordinated Universal Time; a system of time measurement used to regulate time and clocks around the world, based on International Atomic Time with leap seconds added at irregular intervals to compensate for the earth's slowing rotation; except in highly technical situations, regarded as equivalent to Greenwich Mean Time; initiated in 1961 and adopted internationally in 1972

###### Unclear

view_agenda book_2Not clear or distinct; not easy to understand; obscure

###### Understand

view_agenda book_2Perceive what is meant by something; grasp; be familiar with (e.g. an idea); construct meaning from messages, including oral, written and graphic communication

###### Uneven

view_agenda book_2Unequal; not properly corresponding or agreeing; irregular; varying; not uniform; not equally balanced

###### Unfamiliar

view_agenda book_2Not previously encountered; situations or materials that have not been the focus of prior learning experiences or activities

###### Unit

view_agenda book_2A defined amount of subject matter delivered in a specific context or with a particular focus; it includes unit objectives particular to the unit, subject matter and assessment direction

###### Unit Objectives

view_agenda book_2Drawn from the syllabus objectives and contextualised for the subject matter and requirements of a particular unit; they are assessed at least once in the unit (see also 'syllabus objectives', 'assessment objectives')

###### Unrelated

view_agenda book_2Having no relationship; unconnected

###### Use

view_agenda book_2Operate or put into effect; apply knowledge or rules to put theory into practice

###### Vague

view_agenda book_2Not definite in statement or meaning; not explicit or precise; not definitely fixed, determined or known; of uncertain, indefinite or unclear character or meaning; not clear in thought or understanding; couched in general or indefinite terms; not definitely or precisely expressed; deficient in details or particulars; thinking or communicating in an unfocused or imprecise way

###### Valid

view_agenda book_2Sound, just or well-founded; authoritative; having a sound basis in logic or fact (of an argument or point); reasonable or cogent; able to be supported; legitimate and defensible; applicable

###### Variable

view_agenda book_2Adjective: apt or liable to vary or change; changeable; inconsistent; (readily) susceptible or capable of variation; fluctuating, uncertain; noun: in mathematics, a symbol, or the quantity it signifies, that may represent any one of a given set of number and other objects

###### Variety

view_agenda book_2A number or range of things of different kinds, or the same general class, that are distinct in character or quality; (of sources) a number of different modes or references

###### Walk

view_agenda book_2In a graph, a walk is sequence of vertices such that from each vertex there is an edge to the next vertex in the sequence; a walk that starts and finishes at different vertices is said to be an open walk; a walk that starts and finishes at the same vertex is said to be closed walk

###### Weighted Graph

view_agenda book_2A graph in which each edge is labelled with a number used to represent some quantity associated with the edge

###### Wide

view_agenda book_2Of great range or scope; embracing a great number or variety of subjects, cases, etc.; of full extent

###### With expression

view_agenda book_2In words, art, music or movement, conveying or indicating feeling, spirit, character, etc.; a way of expressing or representing something; vivid, effective or persuasive communication

###### Zero matrix

view_agenda book_2A matrix with all of its entries being zero